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    Survey of underwater biological object detection methods based on deep learning
    YU Yu, GUO Baoqi, CHU Shibo, LI Heng, YANG Pengru
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (6): 1-7.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.001
    Abstract282)   HTML32)    PDF(pc) (1695KB)(379)       Save

    Underwater biological object detection is crucial for aquaculture, endangered species protection,and ecological environment monitoring. This study comprehensively analyzes the applications of various deep learning methods in underwater biological object detection. The commonly used underwater biological object detection datasets are introduced. The state-of-the-art underwater biological object detection methods are classified, analyzed, and summarized by two stages and one stage. The actual applications of various detection methods are thoroughly described, and the advantages and disadvantages of their optimization strategies are analyzed and summarized. Future works in the field of underwater biological object detection based on deep learning are presented. This study provides a reference basis for researchers in the field of underwater biological object detection.

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    Short-term prediction of urban railtransit passenger flow based on the Sparrow Search Algorithm-Long Short Term Memory combination model
    JIANG Jiawei, ZHAO Jinbao, LIU Wenjing, XU Yuejuan, LI Mingxing
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 75-84.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.010
    Abstract212)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (1252KB)(97)       Save

    With the rapid growth of China's economy and the continuous urbanization, rail transit plays an increasingly important role in residents' travel. As a key factor affecting the operation efficiency and service level of urban rail transit,accurate passenger flow prediction has attracted increasing attention from operation managers and researchers. To improve the prediction accuracy of the urban rail transit passenger flow, this paper combines sparrow search algorithm (SSA) and long short-term memory network (LSTM) and proposed a SSA-LSTM combined model. Based on the passenger flow data obtained from four stations of Hangzhou Metro Line 1 and the selected factors affecting the rail transit passenger flow, we used the proposed SSA-LSTM model to predict the short-term passenger flow of relevant stations. Then, we compared the predicted results with those estimated by the LSTM, GA-LSTM, and PSO-LSTM models. Results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed model is 16.0%, 8.8%, and 2.3%, higher than the aforementioned models, respectively; furthermore, the proposed method exhibited better performance in terms of the root mean square error. Thus, the proposed model has potential applicationin predicting the urban rail transit passenger flow. Moreover, it can assistoperation managers in improving the operation efficiency and service level of urban rail transit.

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    Wave sensor fault diagnosis method based on t-SNE reduction and KNN algorithm
    TAI Peng, SONG Miaomiao, WANG Bo, CHEN Shizhe, FU Xiao, HU Wei, GAO Saiyu, CHENG Kaiyu, ZHENG Shanshan, JIAO Zixuan, WANG Longfei
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.001
    Abstract203)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (1283KB)(135)       Save

    This study proposes an efficient wave sensor fault diagnosis method based on wavelet packet decomposition, dimension reduction, and k-nearest neighbor algorithm(KNN) classification network to address the difficulty of wave sensor fault diagnosis, unidentifiable fault types, and time-consuming diagnosis. First, the standard deviation of the original signal is normalized. The normalized data is then subjected to a three-layer wavelet packet decomposition. The extracted feature vectors represent normalized data from the eight bands on layer 3. The second step involves using the t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) algorithm to reduce the dimension of the feature data. Finally, the dimension-reduced feature data is input into the KNN classification network for fault classification and detection. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the accuracy and diagnosis speed of the wave sensor fault diagnosis, with a diagnosis accuracy of up to 93.55% for normal and six faulty conditions.

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    Exploring the mechanism of Xiangsha Liujunzi Decoction in treating Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis based on network pharmacology and molecular docking technology
    YIN Zhipeng, GAO Yunyun, LIU Wenwen, GUO Pengbo, ZHAO Yinghui
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 52-60.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.007
    Abstract196)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (1150KB)(102)       Save

    This study aimed to analyze the active ingredients of Xiangsha Liujunzi Decoction and its molecular mechanism in treating Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis using network pharmacology and molecular docking. The drug active compounds, drug target genes, and disease-related targets of H. pylori-associated gastritis in Xiangsha Liujunzi Decoction were screened using Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform, GeneCards database, and OMIM database, and the drug targets and disease-related targets were analyzed using Venn analysis. Cytoscape software and STRING database were used to construct drug-compound potential target interaction network and protein-protein interaction network, respectively. Gene Ontology function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were performed for intersection targets using the DAVID database. The key components and targets were docked using AutoDock PyMOL and other software. The apoptosis rate was determined with Jimsa staining and CCK-8 assay, and the expressions of the related target proteins were detected with western blot. Finally, 122 active compounds, such as quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol, in Xiangsha Liujunzi Decoction were screened out. These genes may be involved in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastritis by acting on 101 potential targets, such as STAT3, TP53, and AKT1, as well as 109 pathways, such as toll-like receptor, TNF, and T-cell receptor signaling pathways. Molecular docking showed that quercetin, β-sitosterol, and luteolin had good affinity for the target proteins STAT3, TP53, and AKT1. Compared with the model group, after treatment with Xiangsha Liujunzi Decoction, the nuclear hyperchromism of GES-1 cells was enhanced, the apoptosis rate was significantly decreased, and the expression of p-STAT3 was also significantly decreased. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that Xiangsha Liujunzi Decoction exerts antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastritis in multiple ways via multiple components and targets.

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    Analysis of the contents of active ingredients in Lonicerae japonicae flos based on UPLC-MS/MS combined with chemometrics
    QIAN Guiying, QIAN Yunying, WU Xiaoming, JIN Fengzhu
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.001
    Abstract195)   HTML16)    PDF(pc) (1148KB)(83)       Save

    This study aimed to devise a methodology for the simultaneous determination of the contents of nine primary components in Lonicerae japonicae flos through ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The chemometric analysis of the nine primary components was performed via negative ion scanning. Further, chromatographic separation was performed on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD column at a temperature of 35 ℃. The mobile phase comprised methanol and water containing 0.2% formic acid, as determined through the cluster thermogram and principal component analyses of Lonicerae japonicae flos. The peak areas with concentrations of nine components exhibited a good linear relationship (R2>0.999 1), and the intraday (0.96%~2.26%) and interday (0.52%~3.04%) precisions and stability values (0.85%~2.15%) agreed well with relative standard deviation (RSD). The recovery rate was between 96.77% and 101.94%, and the RSD was between 2.48% and 4.01%. The results of the chemometric, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses revealed that there were considerable differences in the contents of the active ingredients of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from various regions, and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were considered as the dominant compounds. UPLC-MS/MS quantitative and chemometric analyses of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos performed herein may provide a reference for the modernization of and innovative research on the effective ingredients of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and related quantity effect relations as well as the quality control of related products.

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    Train control method for high-speed railways combining“hit-hard-wall” and “hit-soft-wall” control modes
    LI Wei, ZHANG Shoushuai
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 85-92.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.011
    Abstract180)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (1075KB)(142)       Save

    The passing capacity of several busy high-speed railway lines in China is declining, and reducing train headway can considerably improve train density.However, optimizing the control method for train control systems is important to reduce the headway. On one hand, the commonly employed “hit-hard-wall” control mode has redundancies, rendering it inefficient. On the other hand,the “hit-soft-wall” control mode cannot ensure the absolute safety of train operation. Therefore, this paper proposes a combined“hit-hard-wall” and “hit-soft-wall” control mode, which reduces train tracking interval while ensuring the absolute safety of the train. Further, basic principles for optimizing this control mode are presented herein.In addition, solutions for problems such as the inability to determine the speed of the preceding train and to fulfill control curve constraints under this mode are explored.The solutions include track circuit information-based train speed estimation and control curve generation techniques that satisfy relevant constraints. Considering the CRH380BL train as an example, a solution was developed to obtain recommended values for train control deceleration.Consequently, the train tracking interval on straight tracks was reduced by 3035 meters, and the interval tracking time was reduced by 31 seconds through the proposed control mode. This is of great significance for improving the operational efficiency and passing capacity of high-speed railway lines.

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    Identification of rutin metabolites and analysis of rutin metabolic pathway in rats
    WANG Changlin, GAO Mingzhou, GUO Yinghui, SUN Ya, YU Xiaojun, YAN Zhi, WANG Jieqiong, QIAO Mingqi
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 9-18.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.002
    Abstract180)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (1138KB)(174)       Save

    Herein, metabolites in plasma, urine and feces of rats were analyzed after oral administration of rutin and the metabolic pathway of rutin was evaluated. After intragastric administration of 250 mg/kg rutin, plasma, urine, and feces were collected and treated via solid phase extraction. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole-orbitrapmass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS) was used with 0.05% formic acid water (A)-0.05% formic acid acetonitrile (B) as mobile phase gradient elution. The sample data were collected in positive- and negative-ion modes. The metabolites and metabolic pathway of rutin in rats were determined via high resolution extraction ion chromatography in the parallel reaction monitoring mode, combined with chromatographic retention time, accurate mass measurement and diagnostic ions.Twenty-nine rutin metabolites were detected and identified in positive and negative ion modes,and their main metabolic pathways were methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation and their compound reaction. The study provided the overall metabolic profile of rutin, which will provide a reference for further pharmacodynamic evaluation, development, and utilization in the future and offer a comprehensive research method for drug metabolism identification.

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    Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of air pollution and potential source areas in winter of Jinan
    WANG Zhifei, WANG Zaifeng, LÜ Chen, FU Huaxuan, BIAN Meng, SUN Fengjuan, ZHANG Wenjuan
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 114-121.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.014
    Abstract179)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (1128KB)(213)       Save

    Using the datasets of major air pollutants and meteorological observations during the winter from 2016 to 2018 in Jinan, the characteristics of air pollution were analyzed to identify the major transport pathway of airmass. The results showed that during the winter from 2016 to 2018 in Jinan, about 63.8% and 34.7% of the major pollutants were PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Of the total number of days, 58.6% had a pollution level worse than good polluted. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 increased by 7.5 μg/m3 due to its high concentration in the winter. In terms of spatial distribution, the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were high inTianqiao District, Huaiyin District, and Pingyin County; the concentration of SO2 was high in Shanghe County and Jiyang District; and the concentrations of NO2 and CO were high in Jiyang District, Tianqiao District and Huaiyin District. The results also showed that ρ(NO2), ρ(CO), ρ(PM10), and ρ(PM2.5) had a positive correlation, with all r >0.7. It was inferred that traffic source, industrial combustion source, and burning coal were the major sources of particulate matter. The airmass in the winter of Jinan came from south, northwest, north, and east, and the airmass from south and east were the major transport pathway of air pollution. Further analyses of the potential source contribution and concentration weight showed that the air pollution in Jinan City was affected by the local and surrounding cities, and the current air pollution presents the characteristics of cross-contamination across regions. Therefore, a supervision and coordination mechanism for the joint prevention and control of air pollution in the region should be established to coordinate research and solve growing problems of air pollution.

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    Study on the quality standard of vinegar-processed Knoxiae Radix
    CHEN Xi, GAO Yan, WANG Yanghai, JIA Mingqian, ZHANG Yue, MA Lulan, ZHAO Bonian
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 18-28.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.003
    Abstract178)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (1125KB)(93)       Save

    The study aimed to conduct a comprehensive study on the quality requirements for Knoxiae Radix processed with vinegar and to offer technical support for the formulation of the standard of Shandong Province Chinese herbal medicine processing specification. On the basis of the quality standard of vinegar-processed Knoxiae Radix in Shandong Province Chinese herbal medicine processing specification (2012), 29 batches of Knoxiae Radix samples were collected. Following vinegar processing, the parameters including characteristics, moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extract content, microscopic, and thin layer and content determination were systematically studied and analyzed and the relevant limits were formulated. The project was established on the basis of the current quality standard, in which the microscopic identification, and the lucidin content determination were added, and the extractum item were revised when compared with current quality standard. This study established the Knoxiae Radix quality control index after vinegar processing. The established method of quality control is simple, reproducible, and accurate which can be used for quality control of vinegar-processed Knoxiae Radix.

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    Optimization study on customized bus stop location and fare considering carbon tax
    CAO Hong, REN Hualing
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 69-79.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.009
    Abstract172)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (1125KB)(75)       Save

    To study the influence of carbon tax on the relation between residents' commuting travel choices and social welfare in the process of optimizing customized bus fares for commuter corridors, a two-tier planning model that considers the flexible passenger flow demand and overall social welfare of corridors is established. The upper layer of the model decides the departure location and customized bus fare, and the lower layer is the flexible demand passenger flow allocation model, considering both customized bus and private carbon the commuter corridor. From the perspective of residents' travel satisfaction, the relationship between random passenger flow demand and ticket price was analyzed in the context of carbon tax. According to different passenger departure points, the passenger flow demand is refined as the input of the passenger flow allocation model of the lower elastic demand. Considering the relationship among the passenger flow demand, road congestion, passenger satisfaction, and social welfare, the welfare of corridor passenger transportation system is set as the optimization goal of the upper model. The measurement statistical analysis and particle swarm algorithm are used to solve the two-layer programming model. The calculation results show that the optimized social welfare is considerably improved, the road traffic conditions are significantly improved, and the progressive carbon tax shows positive effect on increasing the sharing rate of customized buses. Under the carbon tax setting, the optimized customized bus fares and departure locations can serve social welfare and reduce the operating costs of urban passenger transportation systems.

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    The mechanism of Gandouling tablet in alleviating hepatolenticular degeneration neuroinflammation via the regulation of the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway
    WEN Yuya, DONG Ting, JIANG Zhangsheng, CHEN Jie, TIAN Liwei, ZHAO Chenling, TANG Lulu
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 42-51.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.006
    Abstract171)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (1330KB)(106)       Save

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of Gandouling tablet on neuroinflammation in hepatolenticular degeneration in TX mice and mechanism of generating CuCl2-induced microglia inflammatory response based on TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. TX mice were divided into control, model, Gandouling tablet low-dose, Gandouling tablet medium-dose, Gandouling tablet high-dose, and penicilamine groups. BV2 cells were divided into control, model, Gandouling tablet, TAK-242, and Gandouling tablet + TAK-242 groups. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to detect histopathological changes in the hippocampus of mice in each group. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of TLR4, p65, NLRP3, and IL-1β in hippocampal tissue and BV2 cells of mice in each group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in hippocampal tissue and BV2 cells of mice in each group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of TLR4, p65, NLRP3, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNA in all groups of BV2 cells. Compared with the control group, hippocampal tissue in the model group showed considerable inflammatory damage; increased protein expressions of TLR4, p65, NLRP3, and IL-1β; and significantly increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the pathological damage of hippocampal tissue improved in both Gandouling tablet and penicillamine groups, and the effect of Gandouling tablet in the Gandouling tablet high-dose group was more prominent than that in the other groups. The Gandouling tablet and TAK-242 groups inhibited the activation of BV2 cells. Additionally, the expression of TLR4, p65, NLRP3, and IL-1β protein and mRNA were significantly reduced in these two groups as compared with the model group, and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Gandouling tablet can alleviate hippocampal inflammation and inhibit CuCl2-induced hyperactivation of BV2 cells in TX mice probably by downregulating TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway.

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    Maximum power point tracking algorithm for photovoltaic arrays under local shadow
    LIU Chen, HUANG Yihu
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 44-51.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.006
    Abstract166)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (1095KB)(69)       Save

    The traditional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is prone to fall into local optimization in the case of a multipeak photovoltaic array. The butterfly optimization algorithm has a strong global search capability and a relatively stable convergence process; however, it has not been widely used due to its low convergence accuracy. This paper proposes an MPPT algorithm that combines the improved butterfly optimization algorithm with the perturbation and observation method. The traditional butterfly optimization algorithm was optimized by introducing the chaotic mapping theory to improve the distribution of the initial butterfly population. Besides, the dynamic switching probability was used to optimize the switching strategy. Herein, first, the global search capability of the butterfly optimization algorithm was used to locate the range of the maximum power point, and then the small step size perturbation and disturbance observation method were used to accurately locate the maximum power point. This algorithm combines the advantages of the global optimization of the butterfly optimization algorithm and the precise optimization of the perturbation and observation method. Furthermore, Simulink simulation experiments were conducted, and the results were compared with the traditional butterfly optimization algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results show that the improved algorithm can adapt to complex and changing light conditions and has certain advantages in both convergence accuracy and speed.

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    Exploringtrait genes and predicting the targeted Chinese medicine for ulcerative colitis based on bioinformatics and machine learning
    LIANG Jiahao, ZHANG Xinhui, WANG Hai
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (6): 56-67.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.008
    Abstract165)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (2803KB)(108)       Save

    For the identification of potential biomarkers for ulcerative colitis (UC) and prediction of their targeted traditional Chinese medicines, datasets containing human UC and healthy control tissues (GSE179285, GSE206285, and GSE87466) were downloaded from the GEO database. The GSE179285 and GSE206285 datasets were merged, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between UC and healthy control tissues were screened using the limma R package. The LASSO regression model and SVM-RFE (support vector machine recursive feature elimination) algorithm were used to identify core biomarkers. The GSE87466 dataset was used as a validation cohort, and the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. CIBERSORT was used to investigate the immune infiltration characteristics in UC, and the correlation between potential biomarkers and different immune cells was further analyzed. Subsequently, the targeted traditional Chinese medicinal herbs were predicted using the HERB database. In total, 157 DEGs were screened out, with 102 genes upregulated and 55 genes downregulated. Functional enrichment analysis showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in IL-17 and TNF signaling pathway, rheumatoid arthritis, chemokine signaling pathway, humoral immune response, neutrophil chemotaxis, neutrophil migration, etc. LOC389023, OLFM4, AQP8, and CWH43 were identified as potential biomarkers for UC, and their diagnostic values were significant in the GSE87466 validation dataset. CIBERSORT immune infiltrate analysis showed significant differences in immune infiltration characteristics between UC and healthy control tissues. High levels of CD4+ memory activated T cells, M1 macrophages, and neutrophils were found in the UC group, while high levels of memory B cells, CD4+ memory resting T cells, M2 macrophages, and resting dendritic cells were found in the healthy control group. Seven traditional Chinese medicinal herbs targeting core biomarkers, including Sojae Semen Praeparatum, Fructus Viticis Cannabifoliae, Herba Equiseti Palustris, Liquor, Sophora alopecuroides L., Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum, and Placenta Hominis, were predicted in the HERB database. The study suggested that LOC389023, OLFM4, AQP8, and CWH43 were identified as diagnostic biomarkers for UC, and the aforementioned seven targeted traditional Chinese medicinal herbs may play a therapeutic role in UC by regulating gut microbiota, affecting inflammation pathways, and modulating the immune system.

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    Preparation and performance of sustained-release encapsulated gel breaker
    HUANG Xiaolei, DING Wei
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 97-103.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.012
    Abstract163)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (1137KB)(121)       Save

    During oilfield workover, it is necessary to control the gel breaking speed of the temporary plugging agent, so that the gel is not broken during the workover to ensure the completion of the operation and is broken quickly after the workover to resume production. For traditional gel breakers, it is difficult to achieve a slow release at the initial stage and a fast release at the late of the workover. This paper describes a cellulose-based sustained-release encapsulated gel breaker with a double-layer film. This gel breaker is evenly mixed with molted Carnauba wax and the solid dispersion pellet is made using the extrusion-speronization method. In the Wurster fluidized bed, a double-layer film with different components is put on the pellet to prepare the sustained-release encapsulated gel breaker. The result of the orthogonal test shows that this method is reliable, the yield of the pellet is 93.2%. SEM result shows that the film on the surface of the pellet is smooth and uniform, and the sealing and unblocking of the film pores are crucial to sustained-release. The results of sustained-release test and simulation test of reservoir gel breaking exhibit that the sustained-release encapsulated gel breaker has an excellent controlled-release effect and reservoir permeability recovery effect. Herein, the preparation method is simple and efficient. The sustained-release of drugs is mainly controlled by the double-layer film.

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    Protective effect and mechanism of quercetin on adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome in rats
    SONG Zeyu, LI Zhenyuan, PAN Tao, MENG Xiangting, LI Song, DONG Hailun, FAN Huaying
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 61-68.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.008
    Abstract163)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (1229KB)(76)       Save

    To investigate the protective effect of quercetin on nephrotic syndrome model rats. Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) male rats were selected, and a single tail vein injection of adriamycin 6.5 mg/kg was used to induce nephrotic syndrome in the rat model. Urine was collected to determine 24 h urine protein concentrations, and the contents of blood biochemical serum total protein and albumin, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, and renal function markers (blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine) were analyzed. The pathological changes in renal tissue were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the ultrastructure of renal podocytes. Western blot was used to detect the expression of desmin, nephrin, and synaptopodin in renal tissue. The results showed that quercetin effectively alleviated 24 h urinary protein in nephrotic syndrome model rats, significantly improved blood biochemical indicators and renal function injury, and alleviated pathological changes in renal tissue and the foot process fusion of renal podocytes. Simultaneously, quercetin can reduce the expression of desmin and increase the expression of nephrin and synaptopodin. Quercetin can effectively treat nephrotic syndrome model rats induced by adriamycin, and it may play a protective role by stabilizing the normal structure and function of podocytes.

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    Mechanism of Sanhuang Xiexin decoction in treatment of Alzheimer's disease based on network pharmacology and molecular docking method
    WANG Yifan, ZHANG Zhe, TIAN Caijun
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 19-26.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.003
    Abstract163)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (1099KB)(75)       Save

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of Sanhuang Xiexin Decoction in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using a network pharmacology approach. The active ingredients and targets of the Sanhuang Xiexin decoction were examined and screened using the systematic pharmacology database and the analysis platform of traditional Chinese medicine. AD-related targets were retrieved and screened through Gene Cards database, and drug and disease intersection targets were obtained through through Venn diagram.The STRING database was used to obtain the network information of protein-protein interaction (PPI). The Cytoscape was used to construct drugs-active ingredients-target-disease network and PPI,and DAVID database was used to analyze common targets in gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). Furthermore, the Sybyl-x 2.1.1 software was used for molecular docking validation. The screening yielded 47 active ingredients and 71 related targets. Herein,the main active ingredients were quercetin, β-sitosterol, wogonin, baicalein, rivularin, and moslosooflavone; and the core targets were IL-6,TNF,IL-1β,VEGFA,TP53.The GO function enrichment analysis predominantly involved biological processes including drug response, hypoxia response, positive regulation of cell migration,and positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthesis.KEGG analysis mainly involved pathways such as cancer pathways, HIF-1 signaling pathways, and TNF signaling pathways.Molecular docking results showed the presence of a relatively strong binding ability between the core target and the core compounds, such as β-sitosterol and rivularin.This study preliminarily explained that the Sanhuang Xiexin Decoction can interfere with AD by modulating HIF-1, TNF, and other signaling pathways, thereby inhibiting Aβ aggregation and tau phosphorylation, blocking acetylcholinesterase activation, and suppressing inflammation.

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    Effect of different slicing methods on the drying characteristics of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma
    WANG Yuchen, CUI Li, ZHAO Hengqiang, LU Heng, LIU Wei, WANG Xiao
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 10-17.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.002
    Abstract161)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (1081KB)(164)       Save

    To explore the effect of different slicing methods on the drying characteristics of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, the hot air drying at 40 ℃ and traditional air drying at room temperature were performed and the results were compared. Furthermore, the effect of different slicing methods (circular cutting and 45° oblique cutting) and slice thickness (2, 4, and 6 mm) on the drying characteristics of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma were investigated. Several water-loss kinetic models were adopted to quantitatively describe the drying characteristics. Results showed that the drying was mainly a falling rate period. The drying rate decreased with the decrease of the moisture content of the dry basis. Furthermore, the larger the slice thickness, the lower the drying rate and the longer the drying time. According to statistical parameters, the Page model predicted and described the drying process more accurately than others. The predicted value of the model was in good agreement with the experimental value, and it could well describe the drying process for different slicing methods. The research provides a guidance for further investigating Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma.

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    Research on differentiated toll pricing for highways based on bi-level programming
    CHENG Sijie, SHAO Xiaoming, LI Zhen, WANG Jiangfeng
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 93-101.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.012
    Abstract161)   HTML16)    PDF(pc) (1081KB)(48)       Save

    To improve the utilization of highway resources and the traffic situation in parallel national and provincial roads, in this study, the interests of highway operators and users was comprehensively accounted; a differentiated toll pricing model with the upper-level objective of increasing highway operating revenues and the lower-level objective of achieving multiclass stochastic traffic network equilibrium was established; and a model incorporating the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing algorithm, and iterative weighting method was developed. Based on the analysis of the traffic characteristics of the Longqing highway and its parallel national and provincial roads in the Shandong Province, the proposed model was used to develop differential toll schemes for entrance and exit sections, time periods, and vehicle types on the highway. The results show that the optimal differentiated tolling schemes can increase the operating revenue of the Longqing highway in the north-south direction by 7861900 yuan/year and reduce the travel cost of the road network by 7 165 100 yuan/year, which confirms the practicality of the proposed model and the effectiveness of the multimode differentiated tolling schemes for highways.

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    Review on the analytical technique for antimony speciation in environmental media
    XU Lei, ZHAO Rusong, JING Chuanyong, WANG Xia
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 122-133.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.015
    Abstract159)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (1052KB)(112)       Save

    This study reviews the speciation analysis methods of antimony indifferent environmental media in recent years. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry is widely used in the antimony speciation analysis because of its advantages such as low detection limit, high sensitivity, and good stability. Before the speciation analysis, extracting different forms of antimony from a complex matrix and maintaining its valence stability are essential. This can be achieved by combining the sensitive detection technology, efficient sample pretreatment techniques, and separation methods. In recent years, the combined techniques have been widely used for the determination of antimony in various environmental samples. Moreover, the challenges in this field and the development prospect of antimony speciation analysis method are discussed.

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    Forecast analysis of the quality markers of Zingiberis Rhizoma based on fingerprints and network pharmacology
    FU Mengya, AO Huihao, BU Chao, PENG Tangyi, WU Deling, HAN Yanquan, HONG Yan
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 35-41.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.005
    Abstract159)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (1095KB)(173)       Save

    To analyze and predict the potential quality markers (Q-Marker) in Zingiberis Rhizoma based on fingerprints and network pharmacological methods. The fingerprints of 10 batches of Zingiberis Rhizoma slices were established by ultra performance liquid chromatography and the common peaks were identified; then the network diagram of active ingredient target pathway was constructed by network pharmacological method to predict the quality markers of Zingiberis Rhizoma; and the bioactivity of Q-Marker was verified by molecular docking method. Fingerprints of 10 batches of dried ginger were established, and 17 peaks were identified. Five chromatographic peaks were identified by the reference substances of Zingiberis Rhizoma, which were 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 8-shogaol. The results of network pharmacology showed that these 5 components can act on 35 core targets, and 20 key pathways which play an anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant role. Molecular docking showed that these 5 components had strong binding capacity with core targets and had good biological activity. It was preliminarily predicted that these five substances could be used as quality markers of dried ginger. Predicting the quality markers of Zingiberis Rhizoma by fingerprint and network pharmacology analysis will provide a reference for the quality control of Zingiberis Rhizoma and for further study on its pharmacodynamic mechanism.

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    Optical fiber microseismic monitoring system and its application research in Wuyang Coal Mine
    ZHANG Hua, HU Binxin, ZHU Feng, WANG Jiqiang, SONG Guangdong
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 60-66.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.008
    Abstract154)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (1137KB)(74)       Save

    Optical fiber microseismic monitoring technology is used to monitor and alert the microvibration events generated during production activities through observation and analysis with passivity and high reliability. Herein, the sensors are vertically installed on the side bolts along the roadway, and the monitoring substation is installed in the chamber. The sensors and the monitoring substation constitute a monitoring network through the laid optical cables. Besides, the simplex method is used to locate the seismic source. This method is free from divergence problems in the location calculation and is highly stable. Moreover, in this method, the solution of the partial derivative and inverse matrix is not required, which reduces the calculation amount and improves the calculation efficiency. Additionally, each sensor can use different wave velocities during the calculation based on the actual situation. The optical fiber microseismic monitoring system was installed in Shanxi Wuyang Coal Mine for preliminary monitoring and application, and the monitoring results were analyzed. The results show that the system can monitor mine activities and warn early, thereby playing a positive role in safe production.

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    Association analysis method for railway accident hazards based on the improved Apriori algorithm
    WANG Ning, CHANG Ximing, YANG Xin, WU Jianjun
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 67-74.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.009
    Abstract148)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (1068KB)(116)       Save

    The causes of railway accidents are difficult to determine as several hazards can lead to accidents. To prevent the occurrence of railway accidents, the hazards responsible for railway accidents should be analyzed, and the occurrence rules of previous railway accidents should be revealed. In this study,data mining analysis on railway accidents and hazards was conducted using the improved Apriori algorithm.Considering the severity of accident casualties, a new calculation method for support and confidence indicators was proposed to weigh and quantify railway accident factors.Furthermore, time constraints were added to explore association rules of hazards with corresponding railway accidents at different times. Using the actual UK railway accident data, the association rules between railway accidents and hazards were discovered, and effective preventive measures were formulated for actual cases. Results show that the improved Apriori algorithm can explore more association rules between railway accidents and hazards, which can play an important role in preventing railway accidents.

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    Route optimization for emergency evacuation vehicles in case of rail station closure
    ZHANG Yiguo, QU Yunchao, YIN Haodong, WU Jianjun
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 80-88.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.010
    Abstract146)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (1090KB)(90)       Save

    To address the problem of emergency evacuation of stranded passengers outside a rail station in case of its closure, this paper designs an evacuation route map, which allows passengers along the line to avail the emergency evacuation vehicles and facilitates the overall evacuation process. To minimize the total cost of vehicle operation and passenger time, this work proposes a route optimization model for emergency evacuation vehicles and improves the adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm to implement the model based on the characteristics of the problem. Finally, based on the urban traffic data of Beijing, we designed routes for emergency evacuation vehicles, analyzed their sensitivity, and verified the model and algorithm with specific examples. The results show that compared with the shortest route algorithm, the optimization results of the proposed model can reduce passengers' travelling time by 15.02%, allowing them to evacuate rapidly while ensuring their experience and improving emergency management systems in case of rail station closure.

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    Quality risk evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine preparations based on the value of the feeding standard
    WU Weikui, YAN Qianru, GU Bingming, LIU Jia, SONG Wei
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 29-34.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.004
    Abstract142)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (1066KB)(80)       Save

    The mathematical formula for calculating the value of the feeding standard was developed, and the mode of quality risk management in traditional Chinese medicine preparations was constructed. The contents of peucedane A and peucedane B in three preparations containing Peucedani Radix (eight batches from four manufacturers) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography; the feeding standard values were calculated; and the quality risks of the preparations were evaluated. The quality risks of preparations were divided into four categories based on the value of the feeding standard, allowing for an effective evaluation of the risks of preparations. The established method can be used to evaluate the standardization of preparation feeding and detect quality risks in real time, providing a decision-making basis for risk classification management.

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    Progress of applied research on the ecological degradation and restoration of wetlands in the Yellow River Delta: a review
    CAI Xinyan, WANG Yi, CHEN Yingkai
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (6): 112-120.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.014
    Abstract141)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (1148KB)(138)       Save

    A systematic review was conducted on the current status and causes of the ecological degradation of wetlands in the Yellow River Delta (YRD), and the ecological restoration technologies were summarized. The results revealed that the wetland areas in the YRD are currently in a serious state of degradation, with the total area of wetlands shrinking year by year. Along with the shrinking of the wetland area, the wetland composition has changed, natural wetlands are decreasing while artificial wetlands are gradually increasing, the pattern of the landscape shows a trend toward fragmentation, and the service function of the ecosystem has been seriously degraded. The main causes of wetland ecological degradation in the YRD include the reduction of water and sediment fluxes from the Yellow River, increased sea-land interactions, intensified salinization of the soil, climate change, invasive species, and human activities. Current ecological restoration techniques for wetland restoration include biocomponent restoration, water body restoration, soil improvement, and comprehensive habitat restoration. This study will utimately provide specific recommendations for wetland restoration in the YRD, which is of great significance for the national strategy of ecological protection and the high-quality development of the YRD.

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    Research progress in high-salinity wastewater treatment by the freeze concentration method
    WANG Xiaokai, ZHAO Changsheng, LI Luzhen, ZHANG Bowei, LIU Xuzhen, TAN Yu
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (6): 121-130.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.015
    Abstract139)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (1815KB)(177)       Save

    The industrial production process produces large quantities of high-salinity wastewater comprising complex water-quality components, including a large amount of Na+, Cl-, SO42-, and other salts as well as toxic substances. Traditional high-salinity wastewater treatment technology has low efficiency and high operating cost. The freeze concentration method for high-salinity wastewater treatment has received widespread attention as a highly efficient and clean treatment technology without secondary pollution. However, the problem of impurities in the ice crystals prepared via freeze concentration should be solved urgently. This article summarizes the research progress of freeze concentration technology in high-salinity wastewater treatment in recent years. The key parameters such as freezing time, freezing temperature, and initial solution concentration were discussed, and various methods for removing impurities from ice crystals, including immersion, gravity, and water addition purification methods, were investigated. To accelerate the desalination process and improve the desalination effect, nucleating agent and ultrasonic-assisted freeze concentration methods were investigated. Furthermore, the energy consumption of the freeze concentration technology was economically analyzed. Moreover, the development of the technology is summarized and a prospect is proposed to provide specific references for the development and application of freeze concentration method in high-salinity wastewater treatment.

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    Study on biodrying plant-fiber agricultural wastes mixed with storage sludge
    LIU Tiantian, WANG Mengfei, WU Xiaosu, JIAO Youquan, WEN Jiangli
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 134-140.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.016
    Abstract139)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (1163KB)(73)       Save

    In this study, common plant-fiber agricultural wastes (corn stalks, peanut shells, and straw) were mixed to storage sludge as bulking agents to study their biodrying performance. Four experimental groups were used, namely, corn stalks, peanut shells, straw, and a control group. Results showed that plant-fiber agricultural wastes could be used as bulking agents in the biodrying process of storage sludge, and the straw group performed best. The straw pile reached a maximum temperature of 57.5 ℃, and the moisture content decreased from 71.83% to 60.01%. The mass fraction of volatile solids (VS) decreased from 62.01% to 52.02%, and the mass ratio of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) showed a decreasing trend with the largest decrease. The w(DOC)/w(DON) gradually decreased during the biodrying process, and the ratio of the straw pile decreased from 4.29 to 2.53, indicating that biodrying could stabilize the materials.

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    Characteristics of spatiotemporal variation of monthly-scale extreme precipitation in Shandong Province under climate warming
    ZOU Jin, LI Jun, GAO Li
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 104-113.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.013
    Abstract138)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (1172KB)(130)       Save

    To reveal the multiscale variation law of extreme precipitation events under climate warming, based on the daily precipitation data of the National Meteorological Station from 1961 to 2020, the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of extreme precipitation events on the monthly scale in Shandong Province were analyzed using the percentile relative threshold method. The results show that the monthly-scale extreme precipitation events in Shandong Province mainly occurred in July and August with the annual frequency bigger than 40%. The annual frequency showed a decreasing trend as one moves from southeast to northwest regions. The annual frequency and precipitation of extreme precipitation events increased in most areas for all seasons except autumn and considerably increased in winter. After the mid-1980s, extreme precipitation events have generally increased and intensified, and their interannual changes have increased significantly. The intensity of extreme precipitation in summer and winter increased significantly by 10 mm to 20 mm during 10 years in summer in the central, southwestern, and peninsular areas of Shandong and 20% to 50% in winter months in Shandong province. The precipitation instability generally increases under climate warming in Shandong, and it is necessary to strengthen early warning and defense services for disaster risks such as rainstorm, flood, and blizzard.

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    Traffic-driven epidemic spreading in two-layer coupled networks
    SUN Xuexin, LING Xiang
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 89-96.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.011
    Abstract137)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (1173KB)(156)       Save

    Current studies on epidemic spreading in multilayer networks are conducted on static networks. However, most of the real-world networks exhibit temporal properties, and extensive research on epidemic spreading in dynamic multilayer networks is not yet done. This work investigates the epidemic spreading behavior of epidemic and information interactions in a two-layer network model combining dynamic and static networks. It was found that the network structure, routing strategy, information transmission probability, and degree of epidemic suppression had a significant impact on the threshold of epidemic spreading. When information completely suppresses the epidemic, the self-awareness rate can effectively control the scale of the epidemic infection. This paper also studies the interaction between epidemic spreading and traffic dynamics by adjusting the node movement speed and contact radius of the dynamic network of thee pidemic layer and finds that the epidemic spreading threshold decreases as the node movement speed increases, whereas the outbreak of the epidemic is effectively suppressed as the contact radius increases.

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    A survey on the current status of traditional Chinese medicine resources in Shizhong District, Jinan, Shandong Province
    LI Wanying, DUAN Wanying, LI Rui, RAN Zhifang, ZHOU Jie, FANG Lei
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (6): 22-27.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.004
    Abstract136)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (1472KB)(82)       Save

    In order to provide basic data for the protection and sustainable utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) resources in Shizhong District, Jinan, Shandong Province, the species composition and distribution of wild TCM resources, the reserves of key medicinal materials, and the situation of cultivated medicinal materials in Shizhong District of Jinan were sorted out and analyzed by field resource investigation, specimen collection, cultivated medicinal materials investigation, data summary, and analysis. According to the investigation of 36 plots and 1 080 prescriptions, 206 kinds of TCM resources were collected, belonging to 64 families and 162 genera. Among them, the major wild medicinal materials, such as platyclus, cypress seed, and sour jujube seed, were abundant, and the cultivated medicinal materials were mainly Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., Polygonum multijiorum Thunb., Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC., and Lonicera japonica Thunb. Those are important measures to strengthen the protection of wild TCM resources, that strengthen the protection of wild TCM resources,guide the classification of TCM resources by regionalization, and carry out ecological planting of cultivated TCM and intercropping.

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    Streamline optimization analysis of side-scan sonar on small autonomous underwater vehicle
    LIU Jin, TAN Hua, SU Liang, QIU Guoji, LIU Rui, LUO Chongxin, WANG Yu, LIU Hao
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (6): 8-14.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.002
    Abstract136)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (3216KB)(97)       Save

    Water dynamics analysis was conducted on a compact and portable autonomous underwater vehicle(AUV) with side-scan sonar and amodified AUV with streamlined side-scan sonar. The analysis focused on examining the drag forces experienced by both AUVs at different speeds. The results demonstrated that the streamlined side-scan sonar effectively reduced pressure and viscous drag forces, resulting in an overall drag reduction of 15.4% at a normal speed of 3 knots, with a 9% reduction in viscous drag and an 18% reduction in pressure drag.At a high speed of 6 knots, the overall drag was reduced by 10.1%, with a 4.2% reduction in viscous drag and a 12% reduction in pressure drag. These findings demonstrate that optimizing the streamlined design of the AUV with side-scan sonar can effectively enhance the dynamic performance of the AUV, reduce its drag force, and improve its efficiency and performance.

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    Predicting surface movement and deformation for continuous mining and continuous backfilling under an artificial lake
    ZHANG Guojian, MENG Hao, XIONG Wei, BAI Tao, MENG Xianchen, WANG Jun, LÜ Xiao
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 33-43.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.005
    Abstract134)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (1383KB)(104)       Save

    To investigate surface movement and deformation characteristics due to continuous mining and continuous backfilling (CMCB)of coal under artificial lakes, laboratory and field coring mechanical tests were conducted on the CMCB area to verify the feasibility of the filling body. Based on the equivalent mining height probability integration method, the surface subsidence of the CMCB area was predicted. The height of the water-conducting fracture zone was analyzed using numerical simulation, and its results were compared with those of the probability integration method. The results show that the strength of the filling body is 5.063 MPa, which is higher than the designed strength of 2.0 MPa, ensuring safe mining.Owing to continuous mining and backfilling in the area, the maximum inclination value of the surface was 0.3 mm/m and the maximum horizontal deformation value of the surface was -0.2 mm/m, respectively, which is less than the range of grade Ⅰ damage to brick and concrete structures. The surrounding surface subsidence was gentle, and there was no safety hazard. The height of the water-conducting fracture zone was about 49.7 m, and the distance from the waterproof layer was about 160.3 m, indicating the safety of underwater coal mining. Results of the FLAC3D numerical simulation and probability integration method were close, thereby verifying that the CMCB technology can effectively slow down surface movement and deformation.

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    On-load transformer fault detection based on distributed optical fiber sensing system
    DONG Guanlei, JIANG Xiaodong, SUN Peng, YANG Guang, GENG Junqi, WANG Jiawen, QU Shuai, HUANG Sheng, WANG Chen, SHANG Ying
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 52-59.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.007
    Abstract134)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (1105KB)(66)       Save

    This paper proposes an artificial neural network-based fault detection and prediction model for on-load transformers using distributed fiber optic sensing technology. By artificially simulating the fault and normal operating states of transformers and using the k-means synthetic minority oversampling technique data expansion method, a small number of fault datasets can be limitedly expanded so that the amount of fault data can be consistent with that of normal data. Therefore, the expanded fault data and normal operation data can be input into the convolutional neural networks long short term memory identification model. Finally, the fault recognition rate can be increased to 100%, which has significant implications for the development of fault recognition systems for on-load transformers based on distributed fiber optic sensing technology.

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    Research progress of green scale inhibitors for circulating cooling water
    HE Zhenbo, ZHANG Li, GAO Mingxin, LUAN Lingyu
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 102-120.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.013
    Abstract131)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (1208KB)(151)       Save

    Recently, circulating cooling water systems have been widely used to alleviate water shortage.However, cooling water usually contains various mineral ions,such as calcium and magnesium, which can easily form insoluble salts and scale on the surface of the equipment. The use of scale inhibitors in cooling water systems is one of the most effective methods to solve the scaling problem. In this paper, the recent research progress on green scale inhibitors at home and abroad was reviewed. The development and applications of green scale inhibitors were introduced here. The characteristics and scale inhibition performance of different types of scale inhibitors are also analyzed.Moreover,the scale inhibition mechanism was explained from different aspects,such as chelation and solubilization, coagulation and dispersion, and lattice distortion.Therefore,this review would provide an excellent reference for future research and development of green scale inhibitors.

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    Investigating the mechanism of action of Elephantopus scaber L. in the treatment of ulcerative colitis based on network pharmacology and molecular docking
    MU Nana, LIAO Binbin, LI Zhen, LI Jipin, LI Yihua, WANG Ying, CHEN Xubing
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (6): 48-55.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.007
    Abstract131)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (2943KB)(123)       Save

    Investigating the molecular mechanism of Elephantopus scaber L. in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) based on network pharmacology and molecular docking techniques. The chemical composition of Elephantopus scaber L. was determined based on literature research, the active ingredients were screened using the SwissADME database, and the targets were predicted by SwissTargetPrediction database. The GeneCards, Disgenet, PharmGKB, and TTD databases were used to obtain the relevant targets for UC, and the topological analysis was performed. The Metascape database was used to perform Gene Ontology (GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) was used for biological pathway enrichment analysis on the candidate targets. In addition, the RCSB PDB database and Chemdraw, PyMoL, AutoDock 4.2.6 was used for molecular docking validation and visualization of core components and key targets. 34 potential targets were screened out, and GO function and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed on the key targets. The results showed that Elephantopus scaber L. can regulate systemic processes, negatively regulate the response to external stimuli, and regulate apoptosis signaling pathways. MAPK3, PIK3CA, STAT3, and JAK2 are regulated by biological processes such as responses to mechanical stimuli. Therefore it participates in the regulation of various KEGG signaling pathways, such as cancer signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, Helicobacter pylori infection epithelial cell signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway, etc. to treat UC.The molecular docking results showed that each active ingredient had good affinity to the key targets. The mechanism of Elephantopus scaber L. in treating UC may be related to inhibiting the expression of MAPK3, PIK3CA, STAT3 and other targets, and relieving the inflammatory reaction of colon tissue.

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    A forecast model of air negative oxygenion in mountainous area of Henan Province
    LIU Yuzhu, ZHANG Wei
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 121-128.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.014
    Abstract130)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (1105KB)(55)       Save

    Using the monitoring data of 34 air negative oxygenion stations and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer vegetation index product data of 13 counties in the western and southern mountainous areas of Henan Province, correlation analysis and random forest regression model were used to analyze the main meteorological and environmental factors affecting the concentration of negative oxygenion in these areas to establish a negative oxygenion concentration forecasting model. Results showed that temperature and relative humidity were the main meteorological factors affecting the diurnal variation of negative oxygenion concentration, concentration of PM2.5, PM10 and vegetation coverage were the main environmental factors.By establishing the negative oxygen ion concentration forecasting model, the quantification of negative oxygen ion prediction was realized. This study provides reference for regional air quality evaluation.

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    Anti-Alzheimer's disease activity of oroxin A and its mechanism of action based on zebrafish model
    SHI Ruidie, GAO Xin, WANG Baokun, GAO Daili, JIN Meng, ZHANG Xiujun
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (6): 28-37.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.005
    Abstract127)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (3894KB)(89)       Save

    To investigate the ameliorative effects of oroxin A on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the underlying mechanism of action, a zebrafish AD model induced by aluminum chloride hexahydrate (AlCl3) was used. Wild-type zebrafish AB larvae at 3 dpf(days post fertilization) were divided into different groups, including negative control group, AlCl3 (80 μmol/L) model control group, AlCl3 (80 μmol/L) combined with donepezil (6 μmol/L) positive control group, and AlCl3 (80 μmol/L) combined with different concentrations (5, 10, and 20 μmol/L) of oroxin A test group. At 6 dpf, zebrafish behavior was monitored and analyzed using zebrafish light-dark locomotion test. Aβ deposition in zebrafish heads was assayed by thioflavin S staining. Acetylcholine assay kit tested acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity. In addition, the expression of autophagy-related genes(beclin1ulk1bulk2 and atg7) was tested by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Molecular docking was performed to validate the interaction between oroxin A and autophagy-related protein(beclin1、ulk1b、ulk2 and atg7). The results indicated that oroxin A significantly relieved the dyskinesia and inhibited Aβ deposition and AchE activity of zebrafish induced by AlCl3. The expression of autophagy-related genes tended to be normal after oroxin A treatment. This study preliminarily revealed that oroxin A alleviated AlCl3-induced AD symptoms in zebrafish, where the underlying mechanism of action is possibly associated with activated autophagy, providing a theoretical basis for the clinical application of oroxin A and its related research in treating AD.

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    The method to construct an urban logistics unmanned aerial vehicles low-altitude hub-and-spoke network
    QU Xinyu, YE Bojia, CHENG Yu, LEI Changding
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (6): 86-95.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.011
    Abstract122)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (2373KB)(83)       Save

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have considerable application potential in urban logistics delivery. However, there are many uncertainties in urban low-altitude airspace operation scenarios. Therefore, it is essential to build a safe and orderly logistics UAV delivery network using scientific methods. From the perspectives of delivery economy, operational safety, and features of logistics UAVs, an integer programming model of multilevel hub-and-spoke network was constructed based on the original ground logistics delivery network. A network construction method was proposed, which combines partitioning around medoids(PAM) clustering with distance restrictions and integer programming. Three evaluation indicators were selected, i.e., delivery timeliness, network security, and network structure characteristics, to compare the constructed logistics UAV delivery network with the original ground delivery network. A logistics UAV delivery network was constructed in Jiangning District of Nanjing city to verify the feasibility of the proposed network construction method. The experimental results show that the UAV delivery network constructed using this method has good delivery timeliness while taking delivery costs and safety into account.

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    A multitask learning model for the prediction of short-term subway passenger flow
    ZHANG Hanxiao, LIU Yuran, LIU Yuan, NIU Zichen
    Shandong Science    2024, 37 (1): 95-106.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230038
    Abstract122)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (1274KB)(83)       Save

    An accurate prediction of short-term subway passenger flowscan effectively alleviate traffic congestion and improve the quality of travel services for urban residents. Herein, we propose a multitask learning-based model for the prediction of short-term subway passenger flows, which uses a residual convolutional neural network (NN) and a nested long short-term memory NN to extract the spatio-temporal correlation of traffic patterns, and introduces an attention mechanism to enhance the feature extraction performance of the NNs. Considering the characteristics of subway operations, the model selects train operation features, bus stops around subway stations, and point of interest data as external features to improve the accuracy of the prediction. Based on the historical data of the Beijing Subway, experiments were conducted in multiple time granularity scenarios, such as 10, 30, and 60 min. The results showed that the methodsuccessfully modeled and analyzed the inflow-outflow interaction through multitask learning, improved the prediction performance and generalization ability of the model, and providednovel approaches for the prediction of short-term subway passenger flows.

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    Effects of different liquid culture media on growth and metabolism of Phylloporia ribis
    SUN Lijiao, SUN Di, CHENG Xianhao, SHI Xiaowei, ZHAO Zhilong
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 27-32.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.004
    Abstract119)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (1040KB)(84)       Save

    Phylloporia ribis, a type of medicinal and edible fungus that parasitizes the phloem of Lonicera japonica rootstock for more than 5 years, has anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects. In this study, four types of liquid media(PD, LPD,MF,LMF) were used for its artificial culture. Furthermore, the effects of different media on the contents of triterpene polysaccharide and adenosine in the biomass were investigated. The results showed that the polysaccharide contents of Phylloporia ribis were high in PD and LPD media (2.910 mg/g and 2.708 mg/g, respectively). The biomass, triterpenoid, and adenosine contents of Phylloporia ribis in LMF medium were 3.280 mg/g, 6.426 mg/g, and 3.182 mg/g, respectively, which were higher than those in the other three media. This study provides a reference for the large-scale artificial cultivation of Phylloporia ribis.

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