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    Properties of the Exfresh fiber and its fabrics
    FENG Longlong, XIE Bingbing, ZHANG Ruiyun, LU Jian, YU Hao, WANG Yunhai
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 60-68.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.008
    Abstract517)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (1164KB)(104)       Save

    The Exfresh fiber is a new type of modified acrylic fiber with fine denier and antibacterial properties; it is fabricated by adding an antibacterial agent to the spinning stock solution. The surface morphologies, mechanical properties, moisture absorption properties, specific resistance, friction properties, and curling properties of the Exfresh and ordinary acrylic fibers were tested and compared in this study. The elemental composition and chemical bonds of the two fibers were analyzed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, the moisture-absorbing quick-drying and moisture-absorbing heat-generating properties of the Exfresh blended fabrics were tested. Results showed that the Exfresh fiber featured a circular cross-section, rough longitudinal surface and dense grooves as well as a low linear density, excellent mechanical properties, and high spinnability. Additionally, it has a lower specific resistance and higher friction coefficient than the ordinary acrylic fiber, thereby making it difficult to produce static electricity. Results of the XPS analysis showed that the added antibacterial agent was a quaternary ammonium salt. Additionally, the evaporation rate of an Exfresh fiber-blended fabric is bigger than 0.18 g/h, and its maximum moisture-absorbing heat-generating temperature rise is bigger than 4 ℃. Moreover, it exhibits excellent moisture-absorbing quick-drying and moisture-absorbing heat-generating properties, and can be used to develop multifunctional fabrics.

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    The mechanism of Xiaoqinglong Decoction in treatment of COVID-19 based on network pharmacology
    ZHU Jie, WANG Zheng, LIANG Yanni
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 10-17.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.002
    Abstract272)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (1093KB)(281)       Save

    This research aims to study the mechanism of Xiaoqinglong Decoction in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on network pharmacology. The traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) online tool was used to screen the active ingredients of Xiaoqinglong Decoction. PubChem, SwissTargetPrediction, and TCMSP databases were used to obtain the potential targets of eight traditional Chinese medicines. OMIM, DisGeNET, and GeneCards databases were used to obtain COVID-19 and delta variant of COVID-19 related targets. The intersecting targets of eight traditional Chinese medicines and Xiaoqinglong decoction and COVID-19 were screened using online tool Venny 2.1, and a Venn diagram was prepared. The Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was used to construct Xiaoqinglong Decoction-components-(COVID-19)-target network. After using STRING database to collect data, protein-protein interaction network was built online. Metascape database was used for gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis, and the GO and KEGG enrichment analysis maps were plotted using Weishengxin online plotting tool. Molecular docking was performed using the AutoDockTools 1.5.6 software. A total of 169 active ingredients, 1 363 targets of Xiaoqinglong Decoction, and 292 intersecting targets of drugs and diseases were screened. A total of 2 393 biological process, 168 cell components, 264 molecular functions were obtained via GO enrichment analysis. A total of 225 pathways were obtained via KEGG. Molecular docking showed that the core components of Xiaoqinglong Decoction screened in this study combined well with the COVID-19 related targets. Xiaoqinglong Decoction could treat COVID-19 through TNF, AKT1, GAPDH, IL-6, ALB, TP53, IL-1β, VEGFA, STAT3, EGFR, and other targets and participate in MAPK signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetes complications, and other pathways.

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    Survey of underwater biological object detection methods based on deep learning
    YU Yu, GUO Baoqi, CHU Shibo, LI Heng, YANG Pengru
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (6): 1-7.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.001
    Abstract255)   HTML32)    PDF(pc) (1695KB)(329)       Save

    Underwater biological object detection is crucial for aquaculture, endangered species protection,and ecological environment monitoring. This study comprehensively analyzes the applications of various deep learning methods in underwater biological object detection. The commonly used underwater biological object detection datasets are introduced. The state-of-the-art underwater biological object detection methods are classified, analyzed, and summarized by two stages and one stage. The actual applications of various detection methods are thoroughly described, and the advantages and disadvantages of their optimization strategies are analyzed and summarized. Future works in the field of underwater biological object detection based on deep learning are presented. This study provides a reference basis for researchers in the field of underwater biological object detection.

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    Molecular dynamics simulation and gas adsorption properties of CO2/CH4 adsorbed using Mg-MOF-74
    XIE Yi, ZHANG Jing, SUN Jinqiang, LIU Xiaochan, YI Xibin, SUN Yongxing
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 123-134.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.015
    Abstract251)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (1255KB)(440)       Save

    Natural gas is an environmentally friendly energy source that can be used in various chemical raw materials. However, the presence of CO2 in natural gas has a significant impact on the heat value and transportation performance of natural gas. Therefore, effective CO2 removal from natural gas is critical. In this study, Mg-MOF-74 was selected as an adsorbent and its effect on CO2/CH4 adsorption and separation performance was investigated using a molecular dynamics simulation method. Based on the simulation results, at certain pressure and temperature settings, CO2 is more likely to bind to the metal sites of Mg-MOF-74 than CH4. Moreover, Mg-MOF-74 exhibits a stronger interaction force with CO2 gas, indicating a higher capacity for CO2 adsorption. To verify the accuracy of the simulation results, Mg-MOF-74 was prepared and its CO2/CH4 adsorption performance was tested.The experiment results is consistent with the simulation,that proved Mg-MOF-74 is more attractive to CO2.

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    Exploration of the dosing pattern and anti-respiratory syncytial virus mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine based on data mining and network pharmacology
    SUN Tiefeng, DONG Limin, JIAO Ziqi, WANG Ping
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.001
    Abstract242)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (1175KB)(197)       Save

    The study aims to analyze the anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) dosing pattern of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) using data mining and network pharmacology, and to explore the possible mechanisms of core TCM. The CNKI database was searched to retrieve TCM prescriptions for treating RSV studies. SPSS Statistics 26.0 was used to classify and explore the qualified TCMs on their frequency, nature, taste, four qi and five flavors and their efficacy. Systematic cluster analysis was performed on the TCMs with a frequency greater than five. The compounds and targets were screened using the traditional Chinese medicine systematic pharmacology analysis platform. The above targets were then matched with the RSV disease targets obtained from GeneCards/OMIM database to obtain the key targets of high frequency anti-RSV TCM. Protein-protein interaction network analysis of the key targets was performed using the STRING platform, DAVID database, and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment analysis. Finally, the Chinese herbal medicine-active ingredient-key target-pathway network was constructed using Cytoscape 3.7.1 software and topology analysis was performed. Ninety-one TCM compound prescriptions were identified which involves 121 TCMs that met the criteria. Among them, heat-clearing drugs, phlegm-relieving, cough-suppressing, and asthma-suppressing drugs were mostly found, with the majority attributed to the lung and liver meridians, mainly cold, warm, flat, bitter, pungent, and sweet. Ephedrae Herba, Scutellariae Radix, licorice, and Amygdalus Communis Vas had the highest cumulative frequency and were clustered into one category. A total of 126 active ingredients of Ephedra Herba, Scutellariae Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, and Armeniacae Semen Amarum were obtained. A total of 110 anti-RSV key targets were obtained, the core targets include GSR, TP53, SOD1, etc., cancer pathway, fluid shear and atherosclerosis pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, blood lipids and atherosclerotic lipids, etc.

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    Comparison of structure and properties of EKS and acrylic fibers
    XIE Bingbing, FENG Longlong, ZHANG Ruiyun, FANG Bin, WU Zhiping
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 69-77.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.009
    Abstract241)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (1121KB)(155)       Save

    EKS fiber is a subacrylate fiber with significant hygroscopic-heating properties. In this study, the surface morphologies of EKS and acrylic fibers were compared, and their mechanical properties, friction properties, specific resistance, curling properties, moisture absorption and liberation properties, and hygroscopic-heating properties were tested and analyzed. The results showed that compared with the acrylic fiber, the EKS fiber featured a circular cross section and rough longitudinal structure as well as low breaking strength, friction coefficient, specific resistance and curl rate; moreover, it featured a high linear density, elongation at break, and moisture recovery rate. With the initial absorption rate and liberation rate being 0.39% min-1 and 8.94% min-1, respectively, the moisture absorption and liberation rates of the EKS fiber decreased exponentially with time, and the time required to achieve the absorption and liberation balance was longer than that for the acrylic fiber. The EKS fiber exhibited good hygroscopic-heating properties with a maximum hygroscopic-heating value of 8.2 ℃, which was 4.7 ℃ higher than that for the acrylic fiber.

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    The mechanism of Guishaozhenxian Tablet in the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy based on network pharmacology and molecular docking
    ZHAO Xin, HUANG Biyun, WU Dan, ZHANG Mei
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 27-37.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.004
    Abstract215)   HTML9)    PDF(pc) (1289KB)(107)       Save

    To study the mechanism of Guishaozhenxian Tablet in the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) based on network pharmacology. Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform was used to retrieve the active ingredients and action targets of Guishaozhenxian Tablet, and the standard gene was transformed using the UniProt database. The OMIM, GeneCards, and DrugBank databases were searched for disease targets related to TLE, and the intersection targets of Guishaozhenxian Tablet in the treatment of TLE were obtained using a Venn diagram. The medicinal herb-component-target network diagram was constructed using the Cytoscape 3.8.2 software, and the core components and key molecular targets were analyzed.Gene Ontology enrichment and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes were used to analyze the biological processes and related pathways. The first three key targets and their corresponding top two core compounds were validated using molecular docking. In total, 127 active ingredients and 46 related targets were identified, with 14 ingredients, including β-sitosterol, quercetin, and kaempferol, playing a central role in 11 key targets such as CALM1, SCN5A, and GSK3B. The anti-TLE effect was primarily due to biological processes (regulation of membrane potential, response to drug, etc.), cell components (postsynaptic membrane, dendrites, etc.), molecular functions (channel activity, calmodulin binding, etc.), neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, nicotine addiction, and other related pathways. Molecular docking results showed that CALM1, SCN5A, and GSK3B had good binding abilities with core compounds. Guishaozhenxian Tablet can reduce oxidative damage; protect neurons; affect ion channels and receptors, intracellular signal transduction, apoptosis, and synaptic structure; and exert anti-TLE effects via multi-components, multi-targets, and multi-pathway coordination.

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    Environment-friendly high-efficiency CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells fabrication based on green antisolvent method
    MENG Jing, GAO Bowen
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 46-52.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.006
    Abstract211)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (1116KB)(146)       Save

    The energy conversion efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPPbI3) perovskite solar cells is closely related to the quality of the perovskite film. To obtain high quality perovskite films, the film preparation method and process were optimized. It was found that the green solvents, propylene glycol methyl ether acetate and glycerol, can promote nucleation of PbI2 particles, provide heterogeneous nucleation sites for CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite crystals, and thus facilitate the rapid growth of perovskite crystals. Compared to perovskite films treated with the common toxic solvent chlorobenzene, films treated with propylene glycol methyl ether acetate and glycerol have larger grain size, lower root-mean-square value, and greater surface roughness optimization. This can result in a uniform, full-coverage perovskite film that is close to the perovskite carrier diffusion length. The performance of devices under different treatment conditions was tested and it was found that compared to CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells treated with chlorobenzene (energy conversion efficiency of 17.86%), the device treated with green solvent glycerol had the highest efficiency of 21.60%, which is an increase of nearly 21%. These experimental results have some reference value and guiding significance for researchers in this field to obtain environmentally friendly high-quality perovskite type solar cells in the future.

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    Short-term prediction of urban railtransit passenger flow based on the Sparrow Search Algorithm-Long Short Term Memory combination model
    JIANG Jiawei, ZHAO Jinbao, LIU Wenjing, XU Yuejuan, LI Mingxing
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 75-84.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.010
    Abstract198)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (1252KB)(93)       Save

    With the rapid growth of China's economy and the continuous urbanization, rail transit plays an increasingly important role in residents' travel. As a key factor affecting the operation efficiency and service level of urban rail transit,accurate passenger flow prediction has attracted increasing attention from operation managers and researchers. To improve the prediction accuracy of the urban rail transit passenger flow, this paper combines sparrow search algorithm (SSA) and long short-term memory network (LSTM) and proposed a SSA-LSTM combined model. Based on the passenger flow data obtained from four stations of Hangzhou Metro Line 1 and the selected factors affecting the rail transit passenger flow, we used the proposed SSA-LSTM model to predict the short-term passenger flow of relevant stations. Then, we compared the predicted results with those estimated by the LSTM, GA-LSTM, and PSO-LSTM models. Results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed model is 16.0%, 8.8%, and 2.3%, higher than the aforementioned models, respectively; furthermore, the proposed method exhibited better performance in terms of the root mean square error. Thus, the proposed model has potential applicationin predicting the urban rail transit passenger flow. Moreover, it can assistoperation managers in improving the operation efficiency and service level of urban rail transit.

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    Wave sensor fault diagnosis method based on t-SNE reduction and KNN algorithm
    TAI Peng, SONG Miaomiao, WANG Bo, CHEN Shizhe, FU Xiao, HU Wei, GAO Saiyu, CHENG Kaiyu, ZHENG Shanshan, JIAO Zixuan, WANG Longfei
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.001
    Abstract196)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (1283KB)(121)       Save

    This study proposes an efficient wave sensor fault diagnosis method based on wavelet packet decomposition, dimension reduction, and k-nearest neighbor algorithm(KNN) classification network to address the difficulty of wave sensor fault diagnosis, unidentifiable fault types, and time-consuming diagnosis. First, the standard deviation of the original signal is normalized. The normalized data is then subjected to a three-layer wavelet packet decomposition. The extracted feature vectors represent normalized data from the eight bands on layer 3. The second step involves using the t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) algorithm to reduce the dimension of the feature data. Finally, the dimension-reduced feature data is input into the KNN classification network for fault classification and detection. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the accuracy and diagnosis speed of the wave sensor fault diagnosis, with a diagnosis accuracy of up to 93.55% for normal and six faulty conditions.

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    Exploring the traffic state identification of highway based on gantry data
    LIU Chunsheng, CAO Rong, WANG Xiaohan, ZHAO Heran, JIA Jianmin
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 100-107.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.012
    Abstract195)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (1206KB)(208)       Save

    To thoroughly investigate the traffic state of highways, Jiqing Highway was selected as the study case. By mining the gantry data, a two-stage clustering algorithm combining k-means and density-based special clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) algorithms were proposed. The method was used to identify vehicles entering the service area and driving abnormally. Subsequently, the filtered vehicle records were extracted to realize a traffic state index weighted by the vehicle type to analyze the traffic state of the highway in terms of spatiotemporal dimensions. Results indicate that the two-stage clustering algorithm performs very well in the identification. The traffic state index indicated three periods when the highway is defined as congested during 7:00—20:00. Furthermore, it accurately identifies the congested sections of the highway. Moreover, it shows out that the mixed rate of large vehicles and the degree of traffic congestion in a section have a close positive correlation. Finally, according to the evaluation index, the traffic state of the Jiqing Highway is divided into four levels, which provides technical support for the traffic authorities to evaluate and manage the highway sections.

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    Action mechanism of the herb pair Aurantii Fructus Immaturus-Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex in the treatment of slow transit constipation based on network pharmacology and metabolomics
    DONG Pengjun, CAI Bin
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 18-26.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.003
    Abstract188)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (1877KB)(199)       Save

    The potential action mechanism of aurantii fructus immaturus and magnoliae officinalis cortex in the treatment of slow transit constipation (STC) was investigated via network pharmacology and metabolomics.The chemical ingredients and targets of aurantii fructus immaturus and magnoliae officinalis cortex were obtained using the traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform. The disease prediction targets of STC were collected through the GeneCards, OMIM, and DisGeNET databases. The intersection targets of ingredients and diseases were obtained using Venn diagrams. The STRING database was used to construct the protein-protein interaction network. The Cytoscape 3.8.0 software was used to calculate and screen the key targets, and then the network diagram of TCM-ingredient targets was plotted. The gene ontology(GO) functional enrichment analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the intersection targets were performed using the Metascape database. A loperamide-induced STC mouse model was used in the study. After intragastric administration of aurantii fructus immaturus and magnoliae officinalis cortex, GC/TOF-MS-based untargeted metabolomics of cecal contents was performed to analyze differential metabolites. A total of 24 active ingredients and 106 intersection targets were obtained. The key targets with higher degree values included AKT1, TNF, TP53, IL6, CASP3, and JUN. GO analysis revealed that the possible processes were cellular response to nitrogen compound, cellular response to lipid, positive regulation of protein phosphorylation, regulation of inflammatory response, regulation of ion transport, etc. KEGG analysis revealed the pathways involved in cancer, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, the calcium signaling pathway, serotonergic synapse, etc. In addition, 21 differential metabolites were found via untargeted metabolomics, including the Akt-associated metabolites nicotinic acid, fructose, and protocatechuic acid. The results suggested that aurantii fructus immaturus and magnoliae officinalis cortex exerted therapeutic effects on STC via multi-ingredient, multi-target and multi-pathway mechanisms, thereby providing ideas and a theoretical basis for future basic research. The active ingredients naringenin and lignan, as well as the key target Akt and its related metabolites, deserves special attention.

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    Long-term performance maintenance decisions for asphalt pavements based on reinforcement learning
    HOU Mingye, WANG Xiaoyang, XU Qingjie, YANG Bo, WANG Xiaofeng
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 108-114.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.013
    Abstract182)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (1083KB)(161)       Save

    To address the huge data analysis problem in the decision-making for long-term road performance maintenance, this paper introduces the deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) reinforcement learning model in the maintenance decision analysis. A set of scientific and effective decision-making methods for long-term performance maintenance of asphalt pavements has been established through machine learning. These methods can improve road performance and make effective use of maintenance funds. Compared with the deep Q-learning network and Q-Learning algorithms, the DDPG algorithm requires less sampling data, converges faster, performs better, and can effectively improve the evaluation efficiency of the road service performance. Therefore, the proposed model plays an important role in the development of multi-objective maintenance decision-making for asphalt pavements.

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    Exploring the mechanism of Xiangsha Liujunzi Decoction in treating Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis based on network pharmacology and molecular docking technology
    YIN Zhipeng, GAO Yunyun, LIU Wenwen, GUO Pengbo, ZHAO Yinghui
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 52-60.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.007
    Abstract180)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (1150KB)(96)       Save

    This study aimed to analyze the active ingredients of Xiangsha Liujunzi Decoction and its molecular mechanism in treating Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis using network pharmacology and molecular docking. The drug active compounds, drug target genes, and disease-related targets of H. pylori-associated gastritis in Xiangsha Liujunzi Decoction were screened using Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform, GeneCards database, and OMIM database, and the drug targets and disease-related targets were analyzed using Venn analysis. Cytoscape software and STRING database were used to construct drug-compound potential target interaction network and protein-protein interaction network, respectively. Gene Ontology function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were performed for intersection targets using the DAVID database. The key components and targets were docked using AutoDock PyMOL and other software. The apoptosis rate was determined with Jimsa staining and CCK-8 assay, and the expressions of the related target proteins were detected with western blot. Finally, 122 active compounds, such as quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol, in Xiangsha Liujunzi Decoction were screened out. These genes may be involved in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastritis by acting on 101 potential targets, such as STAT3, TP53, and AKT1, as well as 109 pathways, such as toll-like receptor, TNF, and T-cell receptor signaling pathways. Molecular docking showed that quercetin, β-sitosterol, and luteolin had good affinity for the target proteins STAT3, TP53, and AKT1. Compared with the model group, after treatment with Xiangsha Liujunzi Decoction, the nuclear hyperchromism of GES-1 cells was enhanced, the apoptosis rate was significantly decreased, and the expression of p-STAT3 was also significantly decreased. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that Xiangsha Liujunzi Decoction exerts antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastritis in multiple ways via multiple components and targets.

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    Network pharmacology to explore the mechanism of Wangbi formula in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
    WANG Yifan, ZHANG Yanyan, TIAN Caijun
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 38-45.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.005
    Abstract172)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (1140KB)(122)       Save

    Based on the research methods of network pharmacology, we discuss the potential mechanism of Wangbi formula in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in this article. The chemical components and action targets of the Wangbi formula were extracted using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform. The RA-related targets were retrieved from the GeneCards database, the intersection targets of drugs and diseases were obtained using a Venn diagram, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network information was obtained using the STRING database. Moreover, the Cytoscape software was used to create the network diagram of drug-active ingredient-target-diseases and PPI, and the common targets were analyzed using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) from the DAVID database. Furthermore, the Sybyl-x 2.1.1 software was used for molecular docking validation. Screening yielded 32 active ingredients and 99 related targets, and the core targets were found to be IL-6, TNF, ATK1, PTGS2, VEGFA, etc. The GO function enrichment analysis mainly involved biological processes, such as positive regulation of RNA polymerase II promoter transcription, whereas KEGG pathway enrichment analysis mainly involved TNF, T-cell receptor, toll-like receptor, osteoclast differentiation, and other signaling pathways. The molecular docking results revealed that the core components, such as kaempferol, triptolide, naringenin, kaempferoside, and prickly shank anthocyanin, demonstrated good binding activity with the core targets, such as IL-6, TNF, ATK1, PTGS2, and VEGFA. This study provided a preliminary explanation of the multicomponent and multitarget mechanisms that may underlie the Wangbi formula's potential mechanism of action in the treatment of RA.

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    Analysis of the contents of active ingredients in Lonicerae japonicae flos based on UPLC-MS/MS combined with chemometrics
    QIAN Guiying, QIAN Yunying, WU Xiaoming, JIN Fengzhu
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.001
    Abstract170)   HTML16)    PDF(pc) (1148KB)(80)       Save

    This study aimed to devise a methodology for the simultaneous determination of the contents of nine primary components in Lonicerae japonicae flos through ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The chemometric analysis of the nine primary components was performed via negative ion scanning. Further, chromatographic separation was performed on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD column at a temperature of 35 ℃. The mobile phase comprised methanol and water containing 0.2% formic acid, as determined through the cluster thermogram and principal component analyses of Lonicerae japonicae flos. The peak areas with concentrations of nine components exhibited a good linear relationship (R2>0.999 1), and the intraday (0.96%~2.26%) and interday (0.52%~3.04%) precisions and stability values (0.85%~2.15%) agreed well with relative standard deviation (RSD). The recovery rate was between 96.77% and 101.94%, and the RSD was between 2.48% and 4.01%. The results of the chemometric, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses revealed that there were considerable differences in the contents of the active ingredients of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from various regions, and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were considered as the dominant compounds. UPLC-MS/MS quantitative and chemometric analyses of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos performed herein may provide a reference for the modernization of and innovative research on the effective ingredients of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and related quantity effect relations as well as the quality control of related products.

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    Train control method for high-speed railways combining“hit-hard-wall” and “hit-soft-wall” control modes
    LI Wei, ZHANG Shoushuai
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 85-92.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.011
    Abstract167)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (1075KB)(134)       Save

    The passing capacity of several busy high-speed railway lines in China is declining, and reducing train headway can considerably improve train density.However, optimizing the control method for train control systems is important to reduce the headway. On one hand, the commonly employed “hit-hard-wall” control mode has redundancies, rendering it inefficient. On the other hand,the “hit-soft-wall” control mode cannot ensure the absolute safety of train operation. Therefore, this paper proposes a combined“hit-hard-wall” and “hit-soft-wall” control mode, which reduces train tracking interval while ensuring the absolute safety of the train. Further, basic principles for optimizing this control mode are presented herein.In addition, solutions for problems such as the inability to determine the speed of the preceding train and to fulfill control curve constraints under this mode are explored.The solutions include track circuit information-based train speed estimation and control curve generation techniques that satisfy relevant constraints. Considering the CRH380BL train as an example, a solution was developed to obtain recommended values for train control deceleration.Consequently, the train tracking interval on straight tracks was reduced by 3035 meters, and the interval tracking time was reduced by 31 seconds through the proposed control mode. This is of great significance for improving the operational efficiency and passing capacity of high-speed railway lines.

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    Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of air pollution and potential source areas in winter of Jinan
    WANG Zhifei, WANG Zaifeng, LÜ Chen, FU Huaxuan, BIAN Meng, SUN Fengjuan, ZHANG Wenjuan
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 114-121.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.014
    Abstract166)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (1128KB)(205)       Save

    Using the datasets of major air pollutants and meteorological observations during the winter from 2016 to 2018 in Jinan, the characteristics of air pollution were analyzed to identify the major transport pathway of airmass. The results showed that during the winter from 2016 to 2018 in Jinan, about 63.8% and 34.7% of the major pollutants were PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Of the total number of days, 58.6% had a pollution level worse than good polluted. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 increased by 7.5 μg/m3 due to its high concentration in the winter. In terms of spatial distribution, the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were high inTianqiao District, Huaiyin District, and Pingyin County; the concentration of SO2 was high in Shanghe County and Jiyang District; and the concentrations of NO2 and CO were high in Jiyang District, Tianqiao District and Huaiyin District. The results also showed that ρ(NO2), ρ(CO), ρ(PM10), and ρ(PM2.5) had a positive correlation, with all r >0.7. It was inferred that traffic source, industrial combustion source, and burning coal were the major sources of particulate matter. The airmass in the winter of Jinan came from south, northwest, north, and east, and the airmass from south and east were the major transport pathway of air pollution. Further analyses of the potential source contribution and concentration weight showed that the air pollution in Jinan City was affected by the local and surrounding cities, and the current air pollution presents the characteristics of cross-contamination across regions. Therefore, a supervision and coordination mechanism for the joint prevention and control of air pollution in the region should be established to coordinate research and solve growing problems of air pollution.

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    Identification of rutin metabolites and analysis of rutin metabolic pathway in rats
    WANG Changlin, GAO Mingzhou, GUO Yinghui, SUN Ya, YU Xiaojun, YAN Zhi, WANG Jieqiong, QIAO Mingqi
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 9-18.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.002
    Abstract164)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (1138KB)(149)       Save

    Herein, metabolites in plasma, urine and feces of rats were analyzed after oral administration of rutin and the metabolic pathway of rutin was evaluated. After intragastric administration of 250 mg/kg rutin, plasma, urine, and feces were collected and treated via solid phase extraction. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole-orbitrapmass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS) was used with 0.05% formic acid water (A)-0.05% formic acid acetonitrile (B) as mobile phase gradient elution. The sample data were collected in positive- and negative-ion modes. The metabolites and metabolic pathway of rutin in rats were determined via high resolution extraction ion chromatography in the parallel reaction monitoring mode, combined with chromatographic retention time, accurate mass measurement and diagnostic ions.Twenty-nine rutin metabolites were detected and identified in positive and negative ion modes,and their main metabolic pathways were methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation and their compound reaction. The study provided the overall metabolic profile of rutin, which will provide a reference for further pharmacodynamic evaluation, development, and utilization in the future and offer a comprehensive research method for drug metabolism identification.

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    Three-dimensional characterization of inclusions in alloy steel using X-ray micro-CT computer tomo-graphy
    SUN Fei, MENG Genglong, TIAN Linan, LI Qiumeng, LI Nan, LIU Long
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 53-59.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.007
    Abstract163)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (1154KB)(127)       Save

    Inclusions have an impact on the fatigue strength and fatigue life of steel, but inclusions in large samples cannot be accurately imaged using X-ray micro computer tomo-graphy(X-ray micro-CT). This study provides a novel approach to obtain the three-dimensional morphology of inclusions in large steel samples. To realize the three-dimensional features of inclusions in large alloy samples, this study used a nonaqueous electrolysis method to obtain inclusions; then scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe and analyze the electrolyzed inclusions.Furthermore, the electrolyzed inclusions were aggregated into cylindrical samples and finally scanned with X-ray micro-CT to obtain their three-dimensional information, and the obtained dimensional data of the inclusions were statistically analyzed.

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    Optimization study on customized bus stop location and fare considering carbon tax
    CAO Hong, REN Hualing
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 69-79.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.009
    Abstract158)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (1125KB)(75)       Save

    To study the influence of carbon tax on the relation between residents' commuting travel choices and social welfare in the process of optimizing customized bus fares for commuter corridors, a two-tier planning model that considers the flexible passenger flow demand and overall social welfare of corridors is established. The upper layer of the model decides the departure location and customized bus fare, and the lower layer is the flexible demand passenger flow allocation model, considering both customized bus and private carbon the commuter corridor. From the perspective of residents' travel satisfaction, the relationship between random passenger flow demand and ticket price was analyzed in the context of carbon tax. According to different passenger departure points, the passenger flow demand is refined as the input of the passenger flow allocation model of the lower elastic demand. Considering the relationship among the passenger flow demand, road congestion, passenger satisfaction, and social welfare, the welfare of corridor passenger transportation system is set as the optimization goal of the upper model. The measurement statistical analysis and particle swarm algorithm are used to solve the two-layer programming model. The calculation results show that the optimized social welfare is considerably improved, the road traffic conditions are significantly improved, and the progressive carbon tax shows positive effect on increasing the sharing rate of customized buses. Under the carbon tax setting, the optimized customized bus fares and departure locations can serve social welfare and reduce the operating costs of urban passenger transportation systems.

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    Study on the quality standard of vinegar-processed Knoxiae Radix
    CHEN Xi, GAO Yan, WANG Yanghai, JIA Mingqian, ZHANG Yue, MA Lulan, ZHAO Bonian
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 18-28.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.003
    Abstract157)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (1125KB)(87)       Save

    The study aimed to conduct a comprehensive study on the quality requirements for Knoxiae Radix processed with vinegar and to offer technical support for the formulation of the standard of Shandong Province Chinese herbal medicine processing specification. On the basis of the quality standard of vinegar-processed Knoxiae Radix in Shandong Province Chinese herbal medicine processing specification (2012), 29 batches of Knoxiae Radix samples were collected. Following vinegar processing, the parameters including characteristics, moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extract content, microscopic, and thin layer and content determination were systematically studied and analyzed and the relevant limits were formulated. The project was established on the basis of the current quality standard, in which the microscopic identification, and the lucidin content determination were added, and the extractum item were revised when compared with current quality standard. This study established the Knoxiae Radix quality control index after vinegar processing. The established method of quality control is simple, reproducible, and accurate which can be used for quality control of vinegar-processed Knoxiae Radix.

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    The mechanism of Gandouling tablet in alleviating hepatolenticular degeneration neuroinflammation via the regulation of the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway
    WEN Yuya, DONG Ting, JIANG Zhangsheng, CHEN Jie, TIAN Liwei, ZHAO Chenling, TANG Lulu
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 42-51.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.006
    Abstract157)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (1330KB)(101)       Save

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of Gandouling tablet on neuroinflammation in hepatolenticular degeneration in TX mice and mechanism of generating CuCl2-induced microglia inflammatory response based on TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. TX mice were divided into control, model, Gandouling tablet low-dose, Gandouling tablet medium-dose, Gandouling tablet high-dose, and penicilamine groups. BV2 cells were divided into control, model, Gandouling tablet, TAK-242, and Gandouling tablet + TAK-242 groups. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to detect histopathological changes in the hippocampus of mice in each group. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of TLR4, p65, NLRP3, and IL-1β in hippocampal tissue and BV2 cells of mice in each group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in hippocampal tissue and BV2 cells of mice in each group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of TLR4, p65, NLRP3, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNA in all groups of BV2 cells. Compared with the control group, hippocampal tissue in the model group showed considerable inflammatory damage; increased protein expressions of TLR4, p65, NLRP3, and IL-1β; and significantly increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the pathological damage of hippocampal tissue improved in both Gandouling tablet and penicillamine groups, and the effect of Gandouling tablet in the Gandouling tablet high-dose group was more prominent than that in the other groups. The Gandouling tablet and TAK-242 groups inhibited the activation of BV2 cells. Additionally, the expression of TLR4, p65, NLRP3, and IL-1β protein and mRNA were significantly reduced in these two groups as compared with the model group, and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Gandouling tablet can alleviate hippocampal inflammation and inhibit CuCl2-induced hyperactivation of BV2 cells in TX mice probably by downregulating TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway.

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    Research on differentiated toll pricing for highways based on bi-level programming
    CHENG Sijie, SHAO Xiaoming, LI Zhen, WANG Jiangfeng
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 93-101.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.012
    Abstract157)   HTML16)    PDF(pc) (1081KB)(48)       Save

    To improve the utilization of highway resources and the traffic situation in parallel national and provincial roads, in this study, the interests of highway operators and users was comprehensively accounted; a differentiated toll pricing model with the upper-level objective of increasing highway operating revenues and the lower-level objective of achieving multiclass stochastic traffic network equilibrium was established; and a model incorporating the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing algorithm, and iterative weighting method was developed. Based on the analysis of the traffic characteristics of the Longqing highway and its parallel national and provincial roads in the Shandong Province, the proposed model was used to develop differential toll schemes for entrance and exit sections, time periods, and vehicle types on the highway. The results show that the optimal differentiated tolling schemes can increase the operating revenue of the Longqing highway in the north-south direction by 7861900 yuan/year and reduce the travel cost of the road network by 7 165 100 yuan/year, which confirms the practicality of the proposed model and the effectiveness of the multimode differentiated tolling schemes for highways.

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    Preparation and performance of sustained-release encapsulated gel breaker
    HUANG Xiaolei, DING Wei
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 97-103.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.012
    Abstract156)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (1137KB)(113)       Save

    During oilfield workover, it is necessary to control the gel breaking speed of the temporary plugging agent, so that the gel is not broken during the workover to ensure the completion of the operation and is broken quickly after the workover to resume production. For traditional gel breakers, it is difficult to achieve a slow release at the initial stage and a fast release at the late of the workover. This paper describes a cellulose-based sustained-release encapsulated gel breaker with a double-layer film. This gel breaker is evenly mixed with molted Carnauba wax and the solid dispersion pellet is made using the extrusion-speronization method. In the Wurster fluidized bed, a double-layer film with different components is put on the pellet to prepare the sustained-release encapsulated gel breaker. The result of the orthogonal test shows that this method is reliable, the yield of the pellet is 93.2%. SEM result shows that the film on the surface of the pellet is smooth and uniform, and the sealing and unblocking of the film pores are crucial to sustained-release. The results of sustained-release test and simulation test of reservoir gel breaking exhibit that the sustained-release encapsulated gel breaker has an excellent controlled-release effect and reservoir permeability recovery effect. Herein, the preparation method is simple and efficient. The sustained-release of drugs is mainly controlled by the double-layer film.

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    Protective effect and mechanism of quercetin on adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome in rats
    SONG Zeyu, LI Zhenyuan, PAN Tao, MENG Xiangting, LI Song, DONG Hailun, FAN Huaying
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 61-68.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.008
    Abstract152)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (1229KB)(74)       Save

    To investigate the protective effect of quercetin on nephrotic syndrome model rats. Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) male rats were selected, and a single tail vein injection of adriamycin 6.5 mg/kg was used to induce nephrotic syndrome in the rat model. Urine was collected to determine 24 h urine protein concentrations, and the contents of blood biochemical serum total protein and albumin, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, and renal function markers (blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine) were analyzed. The pathological changes in renal tissue were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the ultrastructure of renal podocytes. Western blot was used to detect the expression of desmin, nephrin, and synaptopodin in renal tissue. The results showed that quercetin effectively alleviated 24 h urinary protein in nephrotic syndrome model rats, significantly improved blood biochemical indicators and renal function injury, and alleviated pathological changes in renal tissue and the foot process fusion of renal podocytes. Simultaneously, quercetin can reduce the expression of desmin and increase the expression of nephrin and synaptopodin. Quercetin can effectively treat nephrotic syndrome model rats induced by adriamycin, and it may play a protective role by stabilizing the normal structure and function of podocytes.

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    Maximum power point tracking algorithm for photovoltaic arrays under local shadow
    LIU Chen, HUANG Yihu
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 44-51.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.006
    Abstract151)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (1095KB)(67)       Save

    The traditional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is prone to fall into local optimization in the case of a multipeak photovoltaic array. The butterfly optimization algorithm has a strong global search capability and a relatively stable convergence process; however, it has not been widely used due to its low convergence accuracy. This paper proposes an MPPT algorithm that combines the improved butterfly optimization algorithm with the perturbation and observation method. The traditional butterfly optimization algorithm was optimized by introducing the chaotic mapping theory to improve the distribution of the initial butterfly population. Besides, the dynamic switching probability was used to optimize the switching strategy. Herein, first, the global search capability of the butterfly optimization algorithm was used to locate the range of the maximum power point, and then the small step size perturbation and disturbance observation method were used to accurately locate the maximum power point. This algorithm combines the advantages of the global optimization of the butterfly optimization algorithm and the precise optimization of the perturbation and observation method. Furthermore, Simulink simulation experiments were conducted, and the results were compared with the traditional butterfly optimization algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results show that the improved algorithm can adapt to complex and changing light conditions and has certain advantages in both convergence accuracy and speed.

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    Analysis of factors influencing the traffic economic benefits of rural roads in Henan Province
    SHAN Fei, ZHU Yakun, NIE Shigang, WU Xu
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 115-122.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.014
    Abstract147)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (1037KB)(141)       Save

    To effectively improve the traffic economic benefits of rural roads, it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the different impacts of their potential influencing factors. The current study took the rural roads of 1 791 townships across Henan Province between 2016 and 2020 as an example and selected 27 factors influencing the traffic economic benefits of rural highways from four dimensions: basic economy, transportation construction, transportation capacity, and safety and environmental protection. The partial proportional odds model was applied, and the results showed 22 significant factors of which 11 factors violated the parallel-lines assumption. Through the marginal effects of the model, further quantitative analysis of the effects of the significant factors on the traffic economic benefits of rural highways was conducted. Among the factors, the top six influencing factors were daily average travel intensity, road network density, average motor vehicle ownership per household, population density, daily average travel distance, and per capita consumption expenditure. The maximum values of their marginal effects exceeded 13%, indicating that travel demand, construction scale, and economic level had the most remarkable impact on traffic economic benefits. Other factors concerning rural highway operation service and safety and environmental protection had less impact (marginal effects were less than 11%). Based on the different effects observed, several corresponding development countermeasures are propounded to promote sound and rapid development in the traffic economy of rural highways.

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    Review on the analytical technique for antimony speciation in environmental media
    XU Lei, ZHAO Rusong, JING Chuanyong, WANG Xia
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 122-133.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.015
    Abstract146)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (1052KB)(103)       Save

    This study reviews the speciation analysis methods of antimony indifferent environmental media in recent years. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry is widely used in the antimony speciation analysis because of its advantages such as low detection limit, high sensitivity, and good stability. Before the speciation analysis, extracting different forms of antimony from a complex matrix and maintaining its valence stability are essential. This can be achieved by combining the sensitive detection technology, efficient sample pretreatment techniques, and separation methods. In recent years, the combined techniques have been widely used for the determination of antimony in various environmental samples. Moreover, the challenges in this field and the development prospect of antimony speciation analysis method are discussed.

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    Effect of different slicing methods on the drying characteristics of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma
    WANG Yuchen, CUI Li, ZHAO Hengqiang, LU Heng, LIU Wei, WANG Xiao
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 10-17.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.002
    Abstract145)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (1081KB)(148)       Save

    To explore the effect of different slicing methods on the drying characteristics of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, the hot air drying at 40 ℃ and traditional air drying at room temperature were performed and the results were compared. Furthermore, the effect of different slicing methods (circular cutting and 45° oblique cutting) and slice thickness (2, 4, and 6 mm) on the drying characteristics of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma were investigated. Several water-loss kinetic models were adopted to quantitatively describe the drying characteristics. Results showed that the drying was mainly a falling rate period. The drying rate decreased with the decrease of the moisture content of the dry basis. Furthermore, the larger the slice thickness, the lower the drying rate and the longer the drying time. According to statistical parameters, the Page model predicted and described the drying process more accurately than others. The predicted value of the model was in good agreement with the experimental value, and it could well describe the drying process for different slicing methods. The research provides a guidance for further investigating Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma.

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    Mechanism of Sanhuang Xiexin decoction in treatment of Alzheimer's disease based on network pharmacology and molecular docking method
    WANG Yifan, ZHANG Zhe, TIAN Caijun
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 19-26.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.003
    Abstract142)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (1099KB)(73)       Save

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of Sanhuang Xiexin Decoction in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using a network pharmacology approach. The active ingredients and targets of the Sanhuang Xiexin decoction were examined and screened using the systematic pharmacology database and the analysis platform of traditional Chinese medicine. AD-related targets were retrieved and screened through Gene Cards database, and drug and disease intersection targets were obtained through through Venn diagram.The STRING database was used to obtain the network information of protein-protein interaction (PPI). The Cytoscape was used to construct drugs-active ingredients-target-disease network and PPI,and DAVID database was used to analyze common targets in gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). Furthermore, the Sybyl-x 2.1.1 software was used for molecular docking validation. The screening yielded 47 active ingredients and 71 related targets. Herein,the main active ingredients were quercetin, β-sitosterol, wogonin, baicalein, rivularin, and moslosooflavone; and the core targets were IL-6,TNF,IL-1β,VEGFA,TP53.The GO function enrichment analysis predominantly involved biological processes including drug response, hypoxia response, positive regulation of cell migration,and positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthesis.KEGG analysis mainly involved pathways such as cancer pathways, HIF-1 signaling pathways, and TNF signaling pathways.Molecular docking results showed the presence of a relatively strong binding ability between the core target and the core compounds, such as β-sitosterol and rivularin.This study preliminarily explained that the Sanhuang Xiexin Decoction can interfere with AD by modulating HIF-1, TNF, and other signaling pathways, thereby inhibiting Aβ aggregation and tau phosphorylation, blocking acetylcholinesterase activation, and suppressing inflammation.

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    Optical fiber microseismic monitoring system and its application research in Wuyang Coal Mine
    ZHANG Hua, HU Binxin, ZHU Feng, WANG Jiqiang, SONG Guangdong
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 60-66.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.008
    Abstract141)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (1137KB)(69)       Save

    Optical fiber microseismic monitoring technology is used to monitor and alert the microvibration events generated during production activities through observation and analysis with passivity and high reliability. Herein, the sensors are vertically installed on the side bolts along the roadway, and the monitoring substation is installed in the chamber. The sensors and the monitoring substation constitute a monitoring network through the laid optical cables. Besides, the simplex method is used to locate the seismic source. This method is free from divergence problems in the location calculation and is highly stable. Moreover, in this method, the solution of the partial derivative and inverse matrix is not required, which reduces the calculation amount and improves the calculation efficiency. Additionally, each sensor can use different wave velocities during the calculation based on the actual situation. The optical fiber microseismic monitoring system was installed in Shanxi Wuyang Coal Mine for preliminary monitoring and application, and the monitoring results were analyzed. The results show that the system can monitor mine activities and warn early, thereby playing a positive role in safe production.

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    Association analysis method for railway accident hazards based on the improved Apriori algorithm
    WANG Ning, CHANG Ximing, YANG Xin, WU Jianjun
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (5): 67-74.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.05.009
    Abstract139)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (1068KB)(108)       Save

    The causes of railway accidents are difficult to determine as several hazards can lead to accidents. To prevent the occurrence of railway accidents, the hazards responsible for railway accidents should be analyzed, and the occurrence rules of previous railway accidents should be revealed. In this study,data mining analysis on railway accidents and hazards was conducted using the improved Apriori algorithm.Considering the severity of accident casualties, a new calculation method for support and confidence indicators was proposed to weigh and quantify railway accident factors.Furthermore, time constraints were added to explore association rules of hazards with corresponding railway accidents at different times. Using the actual UK railway accident data, the association rules between railway accidents and hazards were discovered, and effective preventive measures were formulated for actual cases. Results show that the improved Apriori algorithm can explore more association rules between railway accidents and hazards, which can play an important role in preventing railway accidents.

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    Exploringtrait genes and predicting the targeted Chinese medicine for ulcerative colitis based on bioinformatics and machine learning
    LIANG Jiahao, ZHANG Xinhui, WANG Hai
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (6): 56-67.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.008
    Abstract138)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (2803KB)(102)       Save

    For the identification of potential biomarkers for ulcerative colitis (UC) and prediction of their targeted traditional Chinese medicines, datasets containing human UC and healthy control tissues (GSE179285, GSE206285, and GSE87466) were downloaded from the GEO database. The GSE179285 and GSE206285 datasets were merged, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between UC and healthy control tissues were screened using the limma R package. The LASSO regression model and SVM-RFE (support vector machine recursive feature elimination) algorithm were used to identify core biomarkers. The GSE87466 dataset was used as a validation cohort, and the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. CIBERSORT was used to investigate the immune infiltration characteristics in UC, and the correlation between potential biomarkers and different immune cells was further analyzed. Subsequently, the targeted traditional Chinese medicinal herbs were predicted using the HERB database. In total, 157 DEGs were screened out, with 102 genes upregulated and 55 genes downregulated. Functional enrichment analysis showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in IL-17 and TNF signaling pathway, rheumatoid arthritis, chemokine signaling pathway, humoral immune response, neutrophil chemotaxis, neutrophil migration, etc. LOC389023, OLFM4, AQP8, and CWH43 were identified as potential biomarkers for UC, and their diagnostic values were significant in the GSE87466 validation dataset. CIBERSORT immune infiltrate analysis showed significant differences in immune infiltration characteristics between UC and healthy control tissues. High levels of CD4+ memory activated T cells, M1 macrophages, and neutrophils were found in the UC group, while high levels of memory B cells, CD4+ memory resting T cells, M2 macrophages, and resting dendritic cells were found in the healthy control group. Seven traditional Chinese medicinal herbs targeting core biomarkers, including Sojae Semen Praeparatum, Fructus Viticis Cannabifoliae, Herba Equiseti Palustris, Liquor, Sophora alopecuroides L., Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum, and Placenta Hominis, were predicted in the HERB database. The study suggested that LOC389023, OLFM4, AQP8, and CWH43 were identified as diagnostic biomarkers for UC, and the aforementioned seven targeted traditional Chinese medicinal herbs may play a therapeutic role in UC by regulating gut microbiota, affecting inflammation pathways, and modulating the immune system.

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    Route optimization for emergency evacuation vehicles in case of rail station closure
    ZHANG Yiguo, QU Yunchao, YIN Haodong, WU Jianjun
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 80-88.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.010
    Abstract138)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (1090KB)(88)       Save

    To address the problem of emergency evacuation of stranded passengers outside a rail station in case of its closure, this paper designs an evacuation route map, which allows passengers along the line to avail the emergency evacuation vehicles and facilitates the overall evacuation process. To minimize the total cost of vehicle operation and passenger time, this work proposes a route optimization model for emergency evacuation vehicles and improves the adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm to implement the model based on the characteristics of the problem. Finally, based on the urban traffic data of Beijing, we designed routes for emergency evacuation vehicles, analyzed their sensitivity, and verified the model and algorithm with specific examples. The results show that compared with the shortest route algorithm, the optimization results of the proposed model can reduce passengers' travelling time by 15.02%, allowing them to evacuate rapidly while ensuring their experience and improving emergency management systems in case of rail station closure.

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    Forecast analysis of the quality markers of Zingiberis Rhizoma based on fingerprints and network pharmacology
    FU Mengya, AO Huihao, BU Chao, PENG Tangyi, WU Deling, HAN Yanquan, HONG Yan
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 35-41.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.005
    Abstract138)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (1095KB)(161)       Save

    To analyze and predict the potential quality markers (Q-Marker) in Zingiberis Rhizoma based on fingerprints and network pharmacological methods. The fingerprints of 10 batches of Zingiberis Rhizoma slices were established by ultra performance liquid chromatography and the common peaks were identified; then the network diagram of active ingredient target pathway was constructed by network pharmacological method to predict the quality markers of Zingiberis Rhizoma; and the bioactivity of Q-Marker was verified by molecular docking method. Fingerprints of 10 batches of dried ginger were established, and 17 peaks were identified. Five chromatographic peaks were identified by the reference substances of Zingiberis Rhizoma, which were 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 8-shogaol. The results of network pharmacology showed that these 5 components can act on 35 core targets, and 20 key pathways which play an anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant role. Molecular docking showed that these 5 components had strong binding capacity with core targets and had good biological activity. It was preliminarily predicted that these five substances could be used as quality markers of dried ginger. Predicting the quality markers of Zingiberis Rhizoma by fingerprint and network pharmacology analysis will provide a reference for the quality control of Zingiberis Rhizoma and for further study on its pharmacodynamic mechanism.

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    Characteristics of spatiotemporal variation of monthly-scale extreme precipitation in Shandong Province under climate warming
    ZOU Jin, LI Jun, GAO Li
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (4): 104-113.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.04.013
    Abstract135)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (1172KB)(121)       Save

    To reveal the multiscale variation law of extreme precipitation events under climate warming, based on the daily precipitation data of the National Meteorological Station from 1961 to 2020, the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of extreme precipitation events on the monthly scale in Shandong Province were analyzed using the percentile relative threshold method. The results show that the monthly-scale extreme precipitation events in Shandong Province mainly occurred in July and August with the annual frequency bigger than 40%. The annual frequency showed a decreasing trend as one moves from southeast to northwest regions. The annual frequency and precipitation of extreme precipitation events increased in most areas for all seasons except autumn and considerably increased in winter. After the mid-1980s, extreme precipitation events have generally increased and intensified, and their interannual changes have increased significantly. The intensity of extreme precipitation in summer and winter increased significantly by 10 mm to 20 mm during 10 years in summer in the central, southwestern, and peninsular areas of Shandong and 20% to 50% in winter months in Shandong province. The precipitation instability generally increases under climate warming in Shandong, and it is necessary to strengthen early warning and defense services for disaster risks such as rainstorm, flood, and blizzard.

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    Electric vehicle pickup and delivery based on link recharging and time windows
    CHEN Qing, XU Xiaoming
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 78-89.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.010
    Abstract135)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (1140KB)(146)       Save

    In this paper, the electric vehicles pickup and delivery problem considering link recharging and time windows was studied. Aims to minimize the total travel distance of vehicles, considering the constraints of vehicle capacity, time windows and battery capacity, etc., to determine a group of optimal vehicle routes. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming model; a variable neighborhood search algorithm is proposed to solve it. Numerical instances are used to verify the model properties and algorithm performance. The results show that the proposed algorithm is only 0.08% worse than the commercial solver CPLEX in small scale instances; however, in large scale instances, the algorithm can obtain high quality feasible solutions in the specified time, in contrast to the CPLEX.

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    Progress of applied research on the ecological degradation and restoration of wetlands in the Yellow River Delta: a review
    CAI Xinyan, WANG Yi, CHEN Yingkai
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (6): 112-120.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.014
    Abstract130)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (1148KB)(128)       Save

    A systematic review was conducted on the current status and causes of the ecological degradation of wetlands in the Yellow River Delta (YRD), and the ecological restoration technologies were summarized. The results revealed that the wetland areas in the YRD are currently in a serious state of degradation, with the total area of wetlands shrinking year by year. Along with the shrinking of the wetland area, the wetland composition has changed, natural wetlands are decreasing while artificial wetlands are gradually increasing, the pattern of the landscape shows a trend toward fragmentation, and the service function of the ecosystem has been seriously degraded. The main causes of wetland ecological degradation in the YRD include the reduction of water and sediment fluxes from the Yellow River, increased sea-land interactions, intensified salinization of the soil, climate change, invasive species, and human activities. Current ecological restoration techniques for wetland restoration include biocomponent restoration, water body restoration, soil improvement, and comprehensive habitat restoration. This study will utimately provide specific recommendations for wetland restoration in the YRD, which is of great significance for the national strategy of ecological protection and the high-quality development of the YRD.

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    Path planning for material transportation by combining mountain road and freight ropeway
    QIN Jian, ZHANG Feikai, LIU Chen, XIA Yongjun
    Shandong Science    2023, 36 (3): 90-99.   DOI: 10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.03.011
    Abstract128)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (1295KB)(165)       Save

    Path planning for material transportation is the fundamental work for constructing power transmission line in complex terrain areas. Such paths generally comprise road and ropeway transportation paths. Based on the digital elevation model and Dijkstra algorithm, this study proposed a combined material transportation path planning algorithm for road and ropeway. Using the fast search method of no-load ropeway transportation path based on parabola, a load ropeway transportation path optimization based on catenary was implemented. Then, the road transportation path was optimally searched using Dijkstra algorithm, and the coordinated planning of road and ropeway transportation paths was conducted. The proposed algorithm was applied to the material transportation path planning of an ultra-high voltage transmission line's towers. Results showed that the combined ropeway and road transportation paths can effectively shorten the design period of material transportation path and improve the efficiency of construction material transportation.

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