Table of Content

    20 June 2024 Volume 37 Issue 3
    Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Active Products
    Screening of potential antiepileptic active ingredients in Rhizoma Gastrodiae based on zebrafish model and metabolomics technology
    CHEN Shanjun, WANG Huan, HU Kaiqing, BI Wenjie, CHENG Guidong, WANG Songsong, HAN Liwen, WANG Xiaojing
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  1-9.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230089
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    Identifying potential antiepileptic active ingredients in Rhizoma Gastrodiae is of immense significance for the prevention and treatment of epilepsy. In this study, we used a larval zebrafish epilepsy model to evaluate the antiepileptic activity of Rhizoma Gastrodiae from two different regions. In addition, we employed metabolomics technology based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry/QE plus to detect the ingredients in Rhizoma Gastrodiae and performed pattern analysis to identify key differential metabolites. The metabolites were further identified using primary and secondary mass spectrometry data and literature references. This step was followed by the confirmation of their antiepileptic activity using the zebrafish epilepsy model. The results showed that nine extracts of Rhizoma Gastrodiae significantly reduced the number of whirls in zebrafish, and significant differences in antiepileptic activity were observed between the Rhizoma Gastrodiae samples from the two regions (P<0.05). Metabolomics and pattern analysis identified six important differential metabolites (Parishin E, Gastrodin, Parishin C, Parishin D, N6-p-hydroxybenzyl adenosine, and 4,4'-dihydroxydibenzyl ether). Activity verification results showed that Parishin E, Gastrodin, and N6-p-hydroxybenzyl adenosine significantly inhibited zebrafish epilepsy-like behavior. This study utilized the zebrafish model and metabolomics to identify and determine several active antiepileptic ingredients in Rhizoma Gastrodiae. Of these, Parishin E and N6- p-hydroxybenzyl adenosine were reported for the first time to exhibit antiepileptic activity, thereby serving as a valuable reference for further research on the antiepileptic effects of Rhizoma Gastrodiae.

    Lignan constituents from the leaves of Dysoxylum gotadhora
    YAN Huijiao, CHEN Yujie, SONG Xiangyun, LI Enxia, GENG Yanling
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  10-17.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230094
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    To study the constituents of the leaves of Dysoxylum gotadhora, the 70% ethanol extract was separated using macroporous resin column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatography, combined with semi-preparative HPLC and other methods. Four compounds 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3',5,5'-trtramethoxy-7,9':7',9-diepoxylignane (1), 4'-hydroxy-3,4,5,3'-trtramethoxy-7,9':7',9-diepoxylignane (2), 4',4″-dihydroxy-3,3',3″,5,5',5″ -hexamethoxy-7,9':7',9-diepoxy-4,8″-oxy-8,8'-sesquineolignan-7″,9″-diol (3), 4',4″-dihydroxy-3,3',3″,5,5'-pentamethoxy-7,9':7',9-diepoxy-4,8″-oxy-8,8'-sesquineo lignan -7″,9″-diol (4) were isolated. Their structures were established by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectroscopy techniques. Compounds 1 to 4 were obtained from the genus Dysoxylum for the first time. DPPH(1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl) radical scavenging rate were used to determine the antioxidant activity. The results show that lignans have significant DPPH free radical scavenging ability.

    Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Preparation and quality evaluation of collagen ceramide liposomes
    TANG Chunhui, ZHANG Zhenbo, WU Dongqin, HUAN Fei, ZHANG Jingshu, WANG Yubang
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  18-26.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230144
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    In this study, egg yolk lecithin, cholesterol,and ceramide were used as film-forming materials to prepare collagen ceramide liposomes (CO-CS) by the thin film dispersion method. To optimize the process, encapsulation efficiency was used as the response value, and it was evaluated by influencing factors such as drug-lipid ratio, film-material ratio, ultrasonic time, and hydration time. Results showed that encapsulation efficiency reached 90.73% when the drug-lipid ratio, film-material ratio, and ultrasonic time were 1:16, 4.3:1, and 8.5 min, respectively. Under these conditions, the particle size, polymer dispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential of CO-CS were(206.63±2.06) nm, 0.187±0.010, and (34.90±0.82) mV, respectively. After 60 days of storage at room temperature in the dark, the encapsulation efficiency was 87.2 %. Furthermore, the particle size, PDI, and zeta potential of CO-CS changed to (223.70±1.85) nm, 0.174±0.013, and (33.51±2.10) mV, respectively. In summary, CO-CS produced in this study revealed high encapsulation efficiency and good stability, and the preparation process is reasonable and feasible.

    Exploration of antihyperlipidemia mechanism of Monopterus albus peptides based on hyperlipidemic zebrafish model and network pharmacology
    MA Shijing, HE Chunyan, GUAN Tianzhu, YAO Xueshuang, ZHANG Junpeng
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  27-38.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230120
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    This study aimed to explore the material basis and mechanism of action of Monopterus albus peptides against hyperlipidemia using hyperlipidemic zebrafish model and network pharmacology. Analysis of the ameliorating effects of Monopterus albus peptides on hyperlipidemia was conducted by constructing a hyperlipidemic zebrafish model and measuring the dye staining signal intensity of triglyceride and cholesterol fluorescence intensity changes. Monopterus albus peptides and disease targets were filtered using BIOPEP-UWM, SwissTargetPrediction, GeneCards, STRING, and other databases. Target GO functional enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed using the DAVID bioinformatics software, and the Monopterus albus peptides-potential target-signaling pathway network and theprotein-protein interaction (PPI) network were constructed. The results showed that Monopterus albus peptides at mass concentrations of 62.5 μg/mL and 125.0 μg/mL significantly reduced the intensity of the triglyceride staining signal (p<0.01) and cholesterol fluorescence intensity (p<0.001) in the vasculature of hyperlipidemic zebrafish. The results of network pharmacology showed that there were 35 potentially active peptide sequences in Monopterus albus peptides, and 21 core targets were obtained by protein interaction analysis. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses indicated that Monopterus albus peptides were mainly involved in biological processes such asregulation of lipid metabolic processes, and exertan antihyperlipidemia effect viainflammation regulation, insulin resistance, and lipid and atherosclerosis channels. Initially, this study confirmed that Monopterus albus peptides have an antihyperlipidemia effect, and revealed that Monopterus albus peptides have multiple active peptide fragments, multiple targets, and multiple channels in the biological process of reducing blood lipid levels, which will provide a theoretical basis and reference for further in-depth research on the material basis of Monopterus albus peptides and their role and application in countering hyperlipidemia.

    Reverse mining of Chinese medicine for intervention of liver cancer based on GEO database combined with network pharmacology and molecular docking technology
    WEI Zekun, YANG Yujie, LIU Shuang, WANG Yan, DONG Hongjing, LIU Chunmei
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  39-47.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230082
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    Based on the gene expression omnibus(GEO) database, combined with network pharmacology and molecular docking technology, we aimed to conduct reverse network pharmacology research from a molecular level to identify Chinese medicine with anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) activity. Relevant targets of HCC were acquired from databases including GEO, GeneCards, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, and Therapeutic Target Database. The core targets were identified using the String platform, and the core constituents were screened from the TCMIP(integrative pharmacology-based research platform of traditonal Chinese medicine) and TCMID(traditional Chinese medicine integraive database) databases. The core traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was ultimately selected through the traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform(TCMSP). Molecular docking technology and cellular experiments were employed to identify relevant screening results. A total of 398 important targets for HCC were found from the disease target databases, from which 8 core targets, 11 core constituents, and 1 core TCM (Puerariae Lobatae Radix) were further screened. Molecular docking results showed that three core constituents (quercetin, genistein, and coumestrol) from kudzu root could spontaneously bind with some core targets (CDK1 and CDC20), and cell experiments demonstrated that the extract from Puerariae Lobatae Radix could effectively inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 liver cancer cells. This study may provide a reference for the research and development of Puerariae Lobatae Radix and offer a theoretical basis for the discovery of its anti-HCC active ingredients.

    Microbiology of Agriculture
    Preparation of organic fertilizer from livestock manure and its effects on soil nutrition and tomato quality
    LI Tao, ZHONG Wei, ZHAO Jun, LIU Huanlong, LI Lijun
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  48-54.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230092
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    Using livestock and poultry manure as the main raw material and corn straw bran as the conditioner, organic fertilizer (OF) and bio-organic fertilizer (BOF) products were produced by biological nano-composite molecular film static composting, and all products were in line with standards of NY 884—2021. Five parallel tomato cultivation experiments were designed, namely, CK (no fertilizer), CF(100% potassium sulfate compound fertilizer, 400 kg/hm2), COF(80% potassium sulfate compound fertilizer+20%OF 3 000 kg/hm2), CBO(80% potassium sulfate compound fertilizer+20%BOF 3 000 kg/hm2), and COB (70% potassium sulfate compound fertilizer+20%OF 2 000 kg/hm2+10%BOF 1 000 kg/hm2). After the experiment, the nutrient contents of soil, organic matter, total nitrogen, and available potassium, as well as fruit quality indicators such as soluble sugar and vitamin C content were measured. The results showed that the application of organic fertilizer could relatively increase the available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the soil, and reducing chemical fertilizer application by 20% to 30% had little effect on tomato yield. Compared to the single application of chemical fertilizer, the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers could significantly improve fruit quality, such as increasing soluble sugar and vitamin C content while effectively reducing the content of titratable acid and nitrate (p<0.05). Through the analysis of the main component of the impact of soil physicochemical indicators on the soil layer, it was found that the impact of each fertilization method on the soil physicochemical indicators was ranked as follows: CBO, COB, COF, CK, and CF. The correlation between six physicochemical indicators in the soil layer and tomato quality was analyzed by redundancy analysis and it was found that all six physicochemical indicators in the soil layer were significantly correlated with tomato quality (p<0.05).

    New Materials
    Laser cladding Ti-Al coating on TC4 titanium alloy surface
    SUN Yongshuo, WEN Daosheng, QIAN Chunguang, ZHANG Minghao, LÜ Qinghua, ZHANG Mingyuan, WANG Shouren, WANG Xinwei
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  55-65.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230112
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    Titanium alloys possess excellent properties like low density, high specific strength, and corrosion resistance. So, these alloys are widely used in the aerospace. With the development of aerospace, the usage ratio of such alloys is one of the criteria to measure whether the aerospace equipment is advanced or not. Because these alloys show low hardness and wear resistance, fretting wear becomes an important cause for the failure of titanium alloy parts. To improve the fretting wear resistance, laser cladding was used to produce a coating on the surface of TC4 alloy in this study. The results showed that the hardness and wear resistance of TC4 alloy were improved by laser cladding Ti-Al powder.

    Effects of aluminum diethylphosphinate/aluminum hypophosphite on the properties of natural rubber/butadiene rubber composites
    XU Lijie, LI Song, LI Lin
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  66-75.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230115
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    The flame retardants aluminum diethylphosphinate (ADP) and aluminum hypophosphite (ALHP) were introduced into natural rubber (NR) and butadiene rubber (BR) to prepare the composites. In this study, we compared the effects of the two flame retardants on the processing characteristics, physical properties, flame retardancy, mechanical properties, and abrasion resistance of the composites. Results showed that both flame retardants delayed the vulcanization of the composites, increased the Mooney viscosity. ADP exhibited a more evident increase in Mooney viscosity than ALHP. When ADP and ALHP was added at 45 phr, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) of the composites increased from 22.1% to 28.7% and 24.5%, respectively. The addition of ADP and ALHP reduced the rebound resilience of the composites, but increased hardness of it. The flame retardants reduced the tensile strength, elongation at break, and tear strength of the composites. Both flame retardants had an adverse effect on the abrasion resistance, with the abrasion loss of the composites increasing by 100% and 85% at 45 phr of ADP and ALHP, respectively. When graphene is used as a carbonization agent for ADP-containing composites, it can improve the flame retardancy without affecting the abrasion resistance. ADP and ALHP have different degrees of influence on the properties of NR/BR composites. Due to the high carbon content of ADP and volatilization by heat, the flame retardancy of NR/BR composites is greatly improved. But the tensile strength and abrasion resistance of the composites are lower than that of the ALHP-containing composites.

    Traffic and Transportation
    The vehicle scheduling problem at a construction site considering road restrictions
    LI Guojian, XU Jun, WU Haijun, SHEN Lei, WANG Yifu, LI Xianli, ZHENG Hankun
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  76-84.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230047
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    This study investigates vehicle scheduling and path planning problems on field roads after large equipment transportation vehicles enter construction sites. Due to road width limitations and varying task priorities, vehicles have difficulty traveling in opposite directions on the same road. Furthermore, the large equipment transportation vehicles have different priorities depending on their loads and urgency of the transportation. To address these challenges, this study constructs an integer programming model based on spatiotemporal network technology that minimizes the total travel time of all vehicles on the site by considering road restrictions and vehicle priorities. Furthermore, vehicle flow balance and meeting avoidance constraints are incorporated into the model. Moreover, a heuristic algorithm is designed to efficiently solve the model and obtain the spatiotemporal path of each vehicle, thereby providing guidance for vehicle path planning and passing each other. The effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm is demonstrated through multiple cases based on an actual wind farm road network. The computational results show that the algorithm can quickly solve the vehicle path planning problem at various scales. Additionally, it can guarantee short waiting time to avoid vehicle meeting while eliminate spatiotemporal conflicts. Moreover, the proposed approach showed high transportation efficiency.

    Functional safety simulation analysis for multiaxle electro-hydraulic steering system based on Simulation X
    CHEN Zhitao, ZHOU Yi, LIU Xiangxin, BAI Jinyang, LIU Yang, WANG Zhenzhen
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  85-92.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230150
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    Based on the standard requirements of ISO 26262 Road Vehicles-Functional Safety, this study analyzes the multiaxle electro-hydraulic steering system of special vehicles to enhance the system's safety and reliability. In this study, the Simulation X software was used to establish a detailed simulation model for the multiaxle special vehicle, and simulation experiments were conducted via fault injection. The simulation results and data were analyzed to assess the severity, exposure and controllability of the faults, thereby determining the corresponding automotive safety integrity level. Thus, based on fault injection simulation, the automotive functional safety analysis method can serve as a crucial means to assess architectural safety in the early stages of system design.

    Mechaical modeling and application of a combined wing aircraft dynamic rotor system
    DU Wei, CHEN Bojian, CHENG Haitao, LI Zhezhou, WANG Zezhao
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  93-102.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230124
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    In this study, we build a model for the rotors and propellers of 60 kg combined wing aircraft based on the strip and momentum theory, and circularly calculated the increment of the upcoming flow as an intermediate variable to precisely determine the propellers’ performance. By comparing the obtained results with the experimental data, we corrected the model and calculated the mechanical performance of the propeller. Result showed that the model could evaluate the thrust and shaft power with a bias of less than 5% and less than 10%, respectively. Using this method, we drew the MAP curves representing the mechanical performance as the essential parameters in the power model and built a bridge between mechanical performance and controlling model. The results can support the study of mechanical modelling of combined wing aircraft.

    Evaluation model for the value of airport advertising spaces based on passenger traffic
    YANG Jun, MU Jianliang, YUAN Xiaoting, TANG Tieqiao, MU Xuanyu
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  103-110.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230140
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    The issue of the pricing of airport advertising revenue, a crucial component of non-aeronautical income in airports, holds significant importance in the operational management of airports. Currently, most airports in China commonly adopt a pricing mechanism based on historical price inertia, while also making adjustments to advertising prices by appropriately considering the total passenger flow for the current year. This pricing mechanism struggles to effectively reflect the true value of advertisements in different locations. This paper proposes a pricing mechanism based on passenger traffic to assess the relative value of advertising spaces within airport terminals. Utilizing a mathematical model combined with the physical layout, and flight and passenger data of the airport, we calculate the distribution of passenger traffic and subsequently evaluate the value of advertising spaces based on this information. Additionally, we apply this approach using sample data from the Capital International Airport. The findings demonstrate that the application of this model can reveal variations in the value of airport advertising spaces with the same media format across different spatial and temporal contexts. This lays the theoretical groundwork for airport advertising management entities to further implement differential dynamic pricing strategies and flexible advertising placement policies.

    Vehicle safety potential field and car-following model based on traffic environment perception
    ZAN Yuyao, WANG Xiang, WANG Kexin, SHEN Jiayan
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  111-120.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230064
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    The safety potential field is utilized to characterize the distribution of safety risks around a vehicle during the driving process. However, when analyzing the safety potential field formed by moving vehicles, the existing models only focus on the vehicle motion but ignore the traffic environment information perceived by drivers. This study focuses on the construction of an improved safety potential field model and its application to the car-following model. Herein, the relative state influence factor is introduced to strengthen the influence of relative speed among vehicles, and the traffic state influence factor is introduced to reflect its influence on driving safety. Moreover, the vehicle type coefficient is introduced to adjust the distance to reflect its influence on driving safety in mixed vehicle type traffic. The car-following model is developed by using the preceptive safety potential field to establish the relationship between the motion state of the front vehicle and the behavior of the following vehicle. Furthermore, the genetic algorithm is employed to calibrate the proposed model, the intelligent driver model, and the car-following model based on the safety potential field. The results show that the root mean square errors of these three models mentioned before are 6.124, 8.515 and 7.248 respectively, which proves that the model proposed in this paper can describe car-following behavior more accurately. Therefore, this study can provide theoretical support for driving risk evaluation and vehicle control under a complex environment.

    Continuous gear shifting model and algorithm of ship lock chambers in a large water-transport hub
    CHEN Dengfeng, LI Yibo, WANG Lei, YAO Hongyun, YANG Junyi
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(3):  121-130.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230069
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    To enhance the navigation efficiency of ships in inland waterway navigation facilities and increase their operational capacity, a continuous gear shifting model and algorithm for ship lock chambers are proposed. This model comprises two scenarios: considering and not considering the sequence of ships entering the lock. First, a two-dimensional packing problem model was employed to establish a continuous gear shifting model for ship lock chambers. Then, an algorithm for solving the aforementioned continuous gear shifting model based on a greedy strategy was proposed. Finally, simulated ship data for vessels arriving at the lock was generated based on the Baise Junction Project. The proposed algorithm was used to calculate the lock chamber gear arrangement. Results indicate that, in the case of randomly generated data for 90 ships, 47 lock cycles were required for the gear arrangement considering the ship arrival sequence, with an average occupancy rate of 76.424%. However, only 45 locks were needed for the gear arrangement when the ship arrival sequence was not considered, with an average occupancy rate of 76.821%. The proposed model and algorithm can effectively shift gears continuously in the ship lock chamber under various conditions.