Table of Content

    20 April 2024 Volume 37 Issue 2
    Oceanographic Science, Technology and Equipment
    Review of marine environment monitoring methods based on GNSS technology
    QI Suiping, XU Xiaofei, LI Yunzhou, WANG Juncheng, DU Jun
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  1-11.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20240023
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    Real-time, accurate and reliable monitoring of marine environmental information plays a crucial role in marine disaster warning and prediction, disaster prevention and reduction, marine resource development, and ensuring marine safety. In recent years, with the continuous development and upgrading of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), the detection of atmospheric and marine environmental information based on GNSS navigation signals has become a new method and a hot research topic in the marine environmental monitoring technology. This method has been widely applied to domains such as marine meteorological monitoring and numerical forecasting. This article systematically reviews the current research status of the GNSS technology in marine environmental monitoring, including effective wave height, wind speed, rainfall intensity, water vapor and tide level monitoring. Furthermore, this paper systematically summarizes new technologies and methods and looks forward to provide reference for the future research in related fields.

    Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Active Products
    Research progress on the mechanisms by which natural phenolic compounds alleviate hyperuricemia
    LIU Shuang, DONG Hongjing, CHEN Panpan, WANG Xiao
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  12-19.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20240028
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    Hyperuricemia (HUA) is a metabolic disorder caused by the physiologic disorders in purine metabolism, resulting in increased serum uric acid levels, which can lead to gout in severe cases. HUA pathogenesis primarily involves enzyme dysfunction, urate transporter expression dysregulation, glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, and intestinal homeostasis disruption. Numerous studies have reported the effectiveness of natural polyphenols in alleviating hyperuricemia and gout. This article summarizes HUA pathogenesis and the mechanisms of action of polyphenolic compounds in reducing uric acid, to provide a theoretical basis for the research and development of uric acid-lowering drugs.

    Progress in the research on the mechanism of action of Scutellaria baicalensis and its active ingredients in treating ulcerative colitis
    LUO Yaqin, HUANG Wei
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  20-28.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20240017
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    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by persistent mucosal inflammation.Scutellaria baicalensis (also known as Huangqin), as a common traditional Chinese medicines used in clinical practice, is known for its efficacy at clearing internal heat,eliminating dampness, purging fire,eliminating toxins, stopping bleeding, and calming fetal activity. Its formulations, including Huangqin Decoction, Peony Decoction, and Pueraria, Scutellaria, and Coptis Decoction, are often used to treat damp-heat UC. Studies have shown that S. baicalensis and its active ingredients play an important role in protecting the intestinal mucosa, and have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. This study reviews the mechanism of action of S. baicalensisand its active ingredients (baicalin,baicalein,oroxindin, wogonin, Scutellaria baicalensis polysaccharide, etc.) in the treatment of UC in recent years, including the protection and repair of the intestinal mucosal barrier, the active ingredients anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, effects against antioxidative stress, and regulation of intestinal flora, to provide a reference for targeted clinical treatment of UC and drug development.

    Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Advancements in network pharmacology and zebrafish modeling for studying traditional Chinese medicine’s effective substances and mechanisms of action
    LIU Kechun, WANG Yongcheng, ZANG Xiaohan, XIA Qing, ZHANG Yun, ZHANG Shanshan, SUN Chen
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  29-35.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20240014
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    Network pharmacology, which is highly consistent with the holistic and systematic perspectives of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with its multiple components and targets, has rapidly developed in the modernization of TCM. Experimental verification is one of the key contents of network pharmacology research. The zebrafish model has a complete system of drug metabolism, as well as a complex in vivo environment and target and pathway regulation mechanisms. Experiments that utilize this model have the advantages of low drug dosage, high throughput, and short cycle time. In recent years, the research mode that combines network pharmacology prediction with experimental validation using the zebrafish model has been widely applied to elucidate the effective substances and mechanisms of action of TCM. This study reviews the progress and development trends in the comprehensive application of network pharmacology and zebrafish modeling, aiming to provide a reference for their application in elucidating the modern scientific implications of the efficacy of TCM.

    Progress and development trends in the use of zebrafish as a model organism for evaluating cosmetic efficacy
    XIA Qing, ZANG Xiaohan, WANG Yongcheng, ZHANG Yun, LI Peihai, ZHANG Xuanming, LIU Kechun
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  36-46.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20240016
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    Zebrafish models have been widely used in various fields such as drug screening, pharmacology, and toxicology research. In recent years, with the implementation of regulations such as the standard for the Evaluation of Cosmetic Efficacy Claims, cosmetic efficacy claims have entered into an era of strict supervision, which has led to higher standards for the scientific nature of the efficacy evaluation models and methods. The skin structure of zebrafish is highly similar to that of humans, with zebrafish also having transparent embryos that are easy to observe. Moreover, efficacy evaluation experiments using zebrafish offer advantages such as minimal sample dosage, shortened experimental cycles, and high-throughput capacity. Consequently, zebrafish have become a popular research topic in the field of cosmetic efficacy evaluation. Based on bibliometric methods, this study analyzes the relevant literature on the use of zebrafish to evaluate cosmetic efficacy over the past decade. The study provides an overview of the progress of the application of zebrafish in cosmetic efficacy evaluation, and examines the development dynamics and trends through comprehensive analysis. This is so as to provide a reference for the application of zebrafish models in the cosmetics industry.

    New Materials
    Enhanced thermoelectric properties of Nb-doped TiCoSb Half-Heusler alloys prepared by microwave method
    ZHANG Ruipeng, KONG Jianbiao, HOU Yangbo, BO Lin, WANG Wenying, WANG Xinglong, ZHAO Linghao, ZHU Junliang, ZHAO Degang
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  47-54.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230101
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    Along with the long preparation cycle time and high cost of conventional preparation methods, the inherent high thermal conductivity of TiCoSb Half-Heusler alloy limited its commercial application. Herein, Ti1-xNbxCoSb Half-Heusler alloys with low thermal conductivity were successfully prepared by microwave synthesis combined with rapid hot-pressing sintering, which substantially shortened the preparation cycle and increased the density of TiCoSb Half-Heusler alloys. Furthermore, we studied the effects of Nb substitution at Ti sites on the phase composition, composition distribution, and thermoelectric transport properties of Ti1-xNbx CoSb Half-Heusler thermoelectric materials. Additionally, the figure of merit(ZT) of Ti1-xNbx CoSb samples were considerably optimized under the combined effects of increasing power factor and decreasing lattice thermal conductivity. The results showed that the Ti0.93Nb0.07CoSb sample had a maximum ZT of 0.1 at 725 K, which was two orders of magnitude higher than that of the TiCoSb sample prepared by the same process.

    Development of high wear resistant and electrostatic conductive graphene hybrid material/butylene/parabutylene tread rubber
    TAN Shuangmei, GUAN Yingdong, ZHAO Shuai, LI Lin
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  55-64.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230083
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    In this paper, graphene prepared by liquid-phase stripping assisted by tannic acid achieved better dispersion than ordinary graphene. The new graphene can meet the requirements of low cost, high output, and environmental protection. Graphene-SiO2 hybrid materials were obtained by reacting SiO2 treated with silane coupling agent (KH550) modification and graphene modified with tannic acid to form strong hybridization bonds, and the success of obtaining graphene-SiO2 hybrid materials was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of graphene-SiO2 hybrid material in styrene-butadiene/polybutadiene composites were studied. In addition, the mechanical properties and the electrical and thermal conductivity of the blend of conductive carbon black and graphene-SiO2 hybrid material in styrene-butadiene/polybutadiene composite were investigated. The results show that: at the addition of 1 part per hundred(phr) of graphene-SiO2 hybrid material, the butadiene/cis rubber composites obtained relatively good wear resistance, if the loading is more than 1 phr, the graphene fillers will easily reaggregate with each other, resulting in an increase in wear volume compared with the blank control group. Moreover, when 8 phrs of self-made graphene were added, the conductivity increased by 1 000 times, and the antistatic properties of rubber composites were considerably improved.

    Optical Fiber and Photonic Sensing Technology
    Centerline extraction algorithm of structured light streak in a complex background
    GAO Qiuling, CHENG Wei, LI Wenlong, GE Hailong, HOU Xingqiang, SONG Ruhui, WEI Jiajie, JIA Tianshuo, CAI Xinyan
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  65-73.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230133
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    The most critical step in a line-structured light three-dimensional scan modeling system is to extract the centerline of the light stripe, but the interference of various environmental factors makes this extraction difficult. Several problems exists in a line-structured light streak image issues such as light spot interference, uneven distribution of light intensity, large differences in the width of the light bars, and complex background. This paper proposed a solution to overcome these problems. First, the structured light image is binarized using the Otsu method. Then, the improved density-based spatial clustering of applications with nose (DBSCAN) algorithm is used to retain the core points and remove the boundary and noise points. Finally, the core points are used as inputs to construct the graph data structure, and the shortest path search algorithm that fits the line-structured light streak image is used to obtain the center-line of the light streak. The experimental results show that the algorithm of this paper runs within 150 ms and the error is within 0.2 pixels. Moreover, this algorithm is applicable to various complex environments, meeting the requirements of real-time calculations, accuracy, and stability.

    Traffic and Transportation
    Complex system reliability
    LIU Yimeng, BAI Mingyang, ZHANG Xiaoke, LI Daqing
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  74-84.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20240025
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    With the development of science and technology, the systematization, networking and intelligentization of the social technology system gradually deepen, forming the complexity of the system. The failures of these complex systems, such as traffic jams, rumor spreading, and financial collapse, can be regarded as a kind of "1+1<2" negative emergence of system capability, which is difficult to understand directly through the reduction analysis of system components. It challenges the classical reliability theory. Research on the complex systems reliability mainly focuses on failures laws, which includes two perspectives. One is the study of system vulnerability considering failure propagation. The other is the study of system adaptability considering failure recovery. System vulnerability studies focus on exploring the internal mechanism of system collapse, namely the failure propagation mechanism. System adaptability studies focus on the capacity to adapt and recover, including the system failure recovery mechanism. Based on this, the article introduces relevant research on reliability method.

    Research progress on cascading failures in complex networks
    ZHANG Duyu, WU Jianjun, YANG Xin, MA Zhi’ao, ZHU Tianlei
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  85-96.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230179
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    With the development of network science and the emergence of complex systems theory, scholars have embarked on in-depth research on the structural and dynamic properties of complex networks. Among the dynamic properties of complex networks, cascading failures, as one of the most important research areas, describe a situation where a fault or error in a system or process leads to the failures of other related components or links. Various models and recovery strategies have been proposed for cascading failures in complex networks. This study analyzes the mechanisms of cascading failures, provides a comprehensive summary on the development of domestic and international cascading failure in complex networks, outlines the recovery strategies for addressing cascading failures, and highlights the existing issues and shortcomings in current research, providing valuable insights for future studies.

    The evolution model and simulation of the viral load of subway passengers
    LU Shoufeng, HUANG Zhikang, ZHAO Hongyun
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  97-103.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230108
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    A functional relationship was constructed between the probability of inhaling viruses and social distance to characterize the viral transmission of subway passengers at the microscopic level. Formulas for calculating the increase and decrease of viral load were constructed based on establishing the viral load evolution equation. Normalized parameters were used within this equation to describe the effect of pandemic prevention measures. The viral load of each passenger was programmed through the Anylogic software’s secondary development interface to characterize the viral load change at the pre- and post-infection phases. In the initial simulation settings, 10% of the passengers were infected with the virus, including ordinary carriers and supercarriers. The evolution of the virus under different passenger number conditions within subway carriages was simulated, which was categorized into with-control and without-control scenarios. The simulation results showed the following: as the number of passengers increases, the passenger density increases, the virus transmission increases, and the individual viral load increases rapidly. Isolating passengers with a viral load greater than a threshold of 1 000 and prohibiting them from taking the subway can reduce the viral load of all passengers by an order of magnitude.

    A numerical comparison of methods for solving the gate allocation problem based on robustness simulation
    LIU Haibin, WANG Jubo, BA Bosheng, WANG Ruixin
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  104-116.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230167
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    Frequent delays of flights at large international airports can affect their smooth operation, hence, the airport apron allocation problem needs to be robustly optimized. In this study, we proposed two integer linear-programing models for solving this problem and used two algorithms for performance comparison: the hill-climbing and large-neighborhood search (LNS) metaheuristic algorithms. In addition, we used the Monte Carlo method to evaluate the effectiveness of different objective functions in dealing with flight conflicts. The final test results show that the LNS algorithm not only improves the robustness of the gate allocation scheme for large airports but also excels in speed and quality, especially, when the square of idle time is used as the objective function.

    Environment and Ecology
    Research progress on microbial regulation technologies to reduce nitrogen loss in agricultural soils
    XU Dongning, WU Xiaoqing, ZHOU Fangyuan, FAN Susu, ZHANG Xinjian, XIAO Guiqing, WANG Jianing
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  117-126.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20240004
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    Nitrogen fertilizers provide the nitrogen necessary for crop growth in modern agricultural production, but their excessive use in the long term leads to waste of resources, economic losses and profound negative environmental impacts. Microorganisms play a critical role in the nitrogen cycle; therefore, there is a significant need for further research in this field. Here, we summarize our findings on the mechanisms and processes by which microorganisms drive the soil nitrogen cycle, including nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, ammonification, and nitrogen assimilation/dissimilation. We further summarize microbial technologies and strategies for mitigating agricultural nitrogen loss and improving agricultural sustainability, such as nitrogen fixation, greenhouse gas emission reduction, nitrogen bioretention, and ammonia volatilization. These strategies illustrate the potential of microorganisms in reducing the dependence on nitrogen fertilizers and increasing crop yields, while also highlighting the challenges of research and effective field application of these technologies.

    Optimization of preparation of persimmon peel polysaccharide chromium using response surface methodology
    MIAO Xuzhong, LI Xiufen, GAO Yanyan, ZHANG Xue, ZHANG Xiqing, QIAO Luqin
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(2):  127-134.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230088
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    In this study, the hot water extraction method was utilized to extract polysaccharides from persimmon peel, and the persimmon peel polysaccharides were combined with trivalent chromium ions to prepare persimmon peel polysaccharide chromium. Considering the adsorption rate of chromium as the index, the adsorption process of persimmon peel polysaccharide chromium was optimized using single factor and response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal preparation process of persimmon peel polysaccharide chromium consisted of the following steps, such as the mass ratio of persimmon peel polysaccharides to chromium chloride was set at 6.7∶1; the reaction time was 150 min; the temperature was set at 82 ℃; and the pH of the adsorption liquid was fixed at 5. Under these conditions, the maximum adsorption rate reached 92.81%. Therefore, this study has shown that persimmon peel polysaccharides can efficiently bind trivalent chromium ions, which can further provide technical support for the development of green pollution-free heavy-adsorption chromium adsorbents or animal nutritional supplements.