Table of Content

    20 February 2024 Volume 37 Issue 1
    Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Active Products
    Investigation and analysis of the current situation of traditional Chinese medicine resources in Gangcheng District, Jinan City, Shandong Province
    YANG Guohong, ZHOU Bingqian, LU Heng, SONG Xiangyun, ZHU Heng, WANG Xiao, LIU Qian, LIU Wei
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  1-8.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230055
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    To understand the current distribution status of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) resources in Gangcheng District, Jinan City, Shandong Province, in accordance with the unified requirements of the fourth national survey of TCM resources, the distribution of wild medicinal plant resources, and cultivation of TCM in Gangcheng District were investigated and sorted out through processes including field investigation, internal industry organization, and data analysis. The results showed that there are 180 species of wild resources in Gangcheng District, belonging to 65 families and 151 genera. Among them, the dominant families include Asteraceae, Leguminosae, and Cruciferae, among others. The reserves of wild Phytolacca, Rubia, and Leonurus are relatively large, and 69 species of wild resources are included in the 2020 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia; Cultivar include Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Crataegus pinnatifida Bge., Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim., Lonicera japonica Thunb., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, among which Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. is a geographical indication resource. This resource survey provides a comprehensive understanding of the types and distribution of wild medicinal plant resources in Gangcheng District, providing a scientific basis for the development and utilization of regional TCM resources and the sustainable development of the TCM industry.

    Diversity analysis and comprehensive value evaluation of wild medicinal plant resources in the fourth national survey of traditional Chinese medicine resources in Weining County,Guizhou Province
    WANG Hui, HUANG Xuan, ZHANG Chenggang, ZENG Wen, ZHOU Tao, JIANG Weike
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  9-16.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230060
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    The survey of wild medicinal resources in Weining County, Guizhou Province was conducted using the sample plot and line transect methods, and the diversity and comprehensive value of the resources were analyzed based on the literature. The survey results showed that there are 130 families, 392 genera, and 658 species of wild medicinal plants in Weining County, mainly composed of dominant families such as Compositae, large families such as Polypodiaceae, and medium-sized families such as Pinaceae. It was found that perennial herbaceous plants are the most abundant, with their main medicinal parts being roots and rhizomes, as well as whole grasses. There were 17 families, 21 genera, and 22 species with reserves, including 11 species with high comprehensive value, such as Semiaquilegia adoxoides (DC.) Makino and Tinospora sagittata (Oliv.) Gagnep., indicating that the diversity of wild medicinal plant resources and overall comprehensive value is rich, and the wild medicinal plant resources are mainly cold and flat medicinal materials in Weining County. Targeted development, utilization, and research can be conducted on cold and balanced medicinal plant resources in Weining County, to strengthen the protection of wild medicinal plant resources with high comprehensive value and provide a basis for the sustainable development and utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources in the county.

    Differential analysis of different solvent extracts from artichoke bud based on component-antioxidant correlation
    LIU Lanling, XU Zhongli, CHEN Jiongchao, YAN Peizheng, ZHAO Dongsheng, LI Jia
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  17-23.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230039
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    Based on the component-antioxidant correlation model, the differences in the content of active components and the antioxidant function of different solvent extracts from artichoke bud were explored. Artichoke bud was extracted with water, 70% methanol, 70% ethanol, and 70% acetone. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were compared in the various extracts. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) cation scavenging capacity and the total reduction capacity were used to evaluate their antioxidant activity. The correlation between the main active ingredients and antioxidant capacity of different extracts from artichoke bud was comprehensively analyzed. The results showed that the levels of total polyphenols and total flavonoids in 70% ethanol extract were the highest, which were (9.14±0.12) mg/g and (13.46±0.42) mg/g, respectively. The extract with 70% methanol has the strongest antioxidant capacity. The IC50 values of scavenging DPPH and ABTS+ were 0.43 mg/mL and 0.10 mg/mL, respectively. Additionally, when the reducing capacity was 0.5, the mass concentration (A0.5) of the extract was 6.42 mg/mL. The results of correlation analysis showed that the level of total polyphenols and total flavonoids were significantly correlated with the DPPH and ABTS+ scavenging capacity (P<0.01). The extract with 70% methanol was rich in polyphenols and flavonoids and possessed the strongest antioxidant capacity, which can provide a certain theoretical basis for further development and utilization of artichoke resources.

    Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Experimental study and network pharmacological analysis of the anti-inflammatory action mechanism of Mahonia bealei (Fort.) Carr.
    FU Zhaoju, CHENG Guo, LIN Dengmei, LI Jun, ZHANG Nannan
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  24-31.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230043
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    The aim of this study was to investigate the active ingredients and mechanism of action of the anti-inflammatory effect of Mahonia bealei (Fort.) Carr. in Hmong medicine based on network pharmacology and animal experiments. Inflammation models of mice and rats were generated using xylene and carrageenan gum, respectively, and Mahonia bealei (Fort.) Carr. was gavaged (dose of 1.950 mg/kg for mice; 1.350 mg/kg for rats). The active ingredients and their corresponding targets of Mahonia bealei (Fort.) Carr. were obtained using TCMSP, SymMap, SwisstargetPrediction, SEA, and STICH, among other databases, with oral bioavailability ≥30% and drug-likeness ≥0.18. Inflammationrelated targets were obtained through GeneCards, DisGeNET, TTD, DrugBank, OMIM and other databases. The intersection targets of diseases and drugs were determined using Venny 2.1.0, and 10 hub gene were obtained through Cytoscape's MCODE, CytoHubba plug-in and constructed drug-component-target network diagram; Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and molecular docking were performed for the 10 Hub gene. The results of animal experiments showed that Mahonia bealei (Fort.) Carr. could be used to reduce the inflammatory symptoms in mice and rats. The network pharmacological analysis revealed 28 Mahonia bealei (Fort.) Carr. active ingredients, 753 drug action targets, 1 025 inflammatory targets, 225 Mahonia bealei (Fort.) Carr. inflammatory crossover targets and 10 hub genes. The results of GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that Mahonia bealei (Fort.) Carr. top ten utilities were predominantly involved in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation and some cancer pathways. The molecular docking results demonstrated that 11 active ingredients, including berberine and isoboridine, were successfully docked with 8 targets, including JUN and JAK3. The results of animal experiments showed that Mahonia bealei (Fort.) Carr. has anti-inflammatory effects, and the main ingredients of anti-inflammation include quercetin and berberine, among other compounds, and the mechanism of anti-inflammation may be through the action onIL-2, JAK1 and other targets, involved in JAK-STAT signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation, and other pathways of anti-inflammation. The present study initially revealed the material basis and mechanism of action of the anti-inflammatory effect of Mahonia bealei (Fort.) Carr.

    Protective effect of Feirepuqing Powder on hypoxia-induced sports injury in zebrafish model by inhibiting Hif1α
    WU Yonghao, XIE Hebing, HOU Hairong, WANG Rongchun, CHEN Xiqiang
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  32-38.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230042
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    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of the Tibetan medicinal compound Feirepuqing Powder on a zebrafish model in a hypoxic environment and its effect on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α). Through establishing a zebrafish hypoxic injury model, behavioral and overall lactate changes under hypoxic conditions were investigated. Experiments were conducted using AB zebrafish larvae 72 h after fertilization. In the control group, 100% standard dissolved oxygen (8.4 mg/L) was used, while in the hypoxia group, pure nitrogen (N2) gas replacement was used to obtain 50% dissolved oxygen (4.2 mg/L) culture water, and the embryos were treated with 50% hypoxic water add different concentrations of Feirepuqing Powder for 24 h. The zebrafish behavioral analyzer was used to record the swimming trajectory for 30 min, and the Zeblab software was used to derive the movement distance and time during the 30 min. Following the experiment, all the zebrafish from both the groups were homogenized and the lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content in their tissue were determined. The changes in the Hif1α expression level of the zebrafish in each group were analyzed via western blot (WB) analysis, and the expression of Hif1α in the caudal fin of each group of fish was compared using immunohistochemistry. The results revealed that compared with the hypoxic control group, 10 to 30 mg/L Feirepuqing Powder group significantly increased the hypoxia-induced exercise distance and exercise time (p<0.05), and relative to the hypoxia-induced lactic acid increase (p<0.001), the lactic acid content of the 30 mg/L Feirepuqing Powder group significantly reduced. When LDH activity was compared with that of the hypoxic group, LDH activity was significantly reduced in the 30 mg/L Feirepuqing Powder group (p<0.05). The WB results revealed that when compared with the hypoxia group, Feirepuqing Powder inhibited the expression of Hif1α (p<0.05). Finally, the immunohistochemical results showed that 10 mg/L of Feirepuqing Powder reduced the expression of Hif1α. The results of this study show that Feirepuqing Powder exhibits a protective effect on induced exercise injuries in an acute zebrafish hypoxic injury model and that its hypoxia-tolerance mechanism is related to the expression of Hif1α.

    Identification and compound screening of copper-induced cell death-related genes SLC31A1 and DBT in hepatocellular carcinoma
    ZHANG Nannan, ZHOU Yifan, ZHU Yi, AN Mingyu, DENG Ying, LI Jun
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  39-50.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230078
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    This study aimed to investigate the effect of copper-induced cell death-related genes on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to explore active components for treating HCC. The GSE84402 dataset was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to obtain the differentially expressed genes associated with HCC, and copper-induced cell death-related genes were retrieved from past literature; the commonalities between the two were considered to obtain HCC-related copper-induced cell death genes. The genes in common were further analyzed for differential expression using the UALCAN (University of Alabama at Birmingham Cancer Data Analysis) portal, the correlation between their expression levels and clinical levels was analyzed using the R language, prognostic value was determined using the Kaplan-Meier plotter, their relationship with HCC metastasis was examined using the Human Cancer Metastasis Database (HCMDB), and their pathological relationship with HCC was explored using the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test. Lastly, compound prediction and molecular docking were performed. The results showed that compared with the normal group, expression levels of the key copper-induced cell death genes SLC31A1 and DBT were downregulated in tumors, and pathological analysis showed that their proteins were increased in HCC tissues. In addition, these genes were significantly correlated with the clinical correlation variables of sex, tumor stage, and lymph node metastasis. Their high expression was correlated with a good HCC prognosis, whereas low expression of SLC31A1 was significantly correlated with the metastasis of HCC to the adrenal glands and lungs. Finally, the active compounds that may bind to SLC31A1 and DBT were screened, of which resveratrol and folic acid exhibited high docking scores. Hence, it could be concluded that copper-induced cell death-related genes SLC31A1 and DBT play an important role in the development of HCC, and this study provides new theories for the diagnosis of HCC and therapeutic drug research.

    New Materials
    Controllable bonding preparation of ethylenediamine-N-propyl modified silica gel and its application in ginkgolic acid removal
    PAN Xiangyu, JIN Zhao, GUAN Tong, CHEN Beiyi
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  51-58.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230063
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    In this paper, the preparation process of N-propylethylenediamine bonded silica gel (PSA) with controllable bonding amount was optimized; the batch repeatability of PSA preparation was examined; and the pilot scale-up experiment of PSA preparation was conducted. The properties of the PSA were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and potentiometric titration. The results showed that N—H stretching vibration peaks appeared at 3 460 cm-1, asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibration peaks of —CH appeared at 2 960 cm-1 and 2 860 cm-1, and deformation vibration absorption peaks of —NH2 appeared at 708 cm-1, indicating that N-propylethylenediamine was successfully grafted onto the surface of silica gel.Furthermore, with the increasing proportion of silane reagent in the preparation system, the content of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen elements and the ion exchange capacity obtained by potentiometric titration showed an upward trend, indicating that the bonding amount of ethylenediamine-N-propyl functional group gradually increased. Moreover, the prepared PSA packing component was separated from the purification column, and the removal efficiency of ginkgolic acid from the extract of ginkgo biloba leaves using PSA with different bonding amounts was investigated. The results showed that PSA had a strong adsorption capacity for ginkgolic acid and could be used to remove ginkgolic acid from the extract of ginkgo biloba leaves, the maximum sample loading volumes for PSA separation and purification columns 2#, 3#, 4#, and 5# are 21, 22, 23, 24 mL, respectively. In addition, the removal efficiency was found to increase with the increasing amount of ethylenediamine-N-propyl bonding.

    Application of green functionalized heavy calcium carbonate in rigid PVC foam sheet with high dimensional stability
    SONG Shikai, LIU Xiaoyang, GUO Yuxia, ZHAO Shuai, LI Lin
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  59-68.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230035
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    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) foam board is prepared by extrusion foaming of PVC with low polymerization degree, and the PVC foam board is prone to curling movement along the force direction of the molecular chain due to environmental changes, resulting in shrinkage and deformation of the board. Heavy calcium carbonate (HCC) was used as raw material, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and tannic acid (TA) were used as modifiers to prepare modified HCC. It was combined with PVC to prepare PVC foam sheets. Infrared spectrometer, differential scanning calorimeter, scanning electron microscope, Vicat softening point tester and universal electronic stretching machine were used to characterize the foamed board, and the effect of modifier dosage on the dimensional stability of the foamed board was discussed. The results show that when the TA content is 3% of HCC, the glass transition temperature of PVC foam board is 88.1 ℃, the temperature of Vicat softening point is 75.21 ℃, and the PVC foam board has excellent dimensional stability, and the cell structure is stable and uniform, and has the best tensile strength of 6.17 MPa. Modified HCC particles have good dispersion, strong binding ability with PVC, and high dimensional stability of PVC foam board can replace the use of wood in home decoration boards, which is of great significance to protect the environment.

    Effect of graphene-modified silica filler on the properties of natural rubber
    GUO Jingze, TAN Shuangmei, LI Yutong, LIU Zhihua, LI Song, XIN Zhenxiang, ZHAO Shuai, LI Lin
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  69-79.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230074
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    Silica (mainly comprising nano-SiO2) is widely used in rubber reinforcement owing to its advantages of easy preparation and environmental protection. However, owing to its structural characteristics, silica has poorer dispersion and reinforcement ability than carbon black. The purpose of this paper is to present a proposal to improve the dispersion of silica in rubber using a silane coupling agent and to study the effect of synergistic reinforcement of modified silica and graphene on natural rubber. The hybrid filler KS-TGE was obtained through a Michael addition reaction between graphene modified by dispersant tannic acid and silica (KS) modified by the silane coupling agent KH570. Subsequently, the KS-TGE/NR composites were prepared by mixing KS-TGE with natural rubber. Test results showed that the modified silica improves the dispersion in rubber and the mechanical properties of natural rubber after blending with the hybrid filler prepared using graphene and natural rubber. Compared with unmodified nano-SiO2/NR, the tensile strength of the modified composites increased by 36.3% and the elongation at break increased by 79.5%. In addition, KS-TGE/NR can maintain excellent elastic and dynamic mechanical properties.

    Impact of yarns and weave structures on the coolness of woven fabrics
    LI Yonghan, LIU Yan, BAI Zhihao, ZHANG Ruiyun, WANG Yiyi, DU Lixin
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  80-87.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230065
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    A lightweight and cooling woven fabric for summer was developed by selecting and combining different cooling fibers. Twelve samples were produced by selecting polyester/mint blended yarn as warp yarn, nylon fiber as weft yarn and plain, and twill and satin as fabric weave to investigate the impact of different weft yarns and fabric structures on the thermal and moisture comfort properties of the fabrics. The results showed that twill and satin fabrics had better thermal and moisture transfer performance; plain weave fabrics provided a good cooling sensation upon contact; cool nylon indeed enhanced the cooling of the fabric, but it showed poor moisture transfer performance in tightly woven structures. Micro-denier nylon had similar thermal and moisture transfer performance to cool-feel nylon but had lower air permeability and cross-sectional nylon had better moisture transfer performance but lower thermal conductivity.

    Traffic and Transportation
    Study on the distance measurement of approaching vehicles in fog
    SHENG Yuting
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  88-94.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230034
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    To address the challenges related to distance measurement of an approaching vehicle in fog,we developed an experimental platform to rapid image processing and real-time distance measurement.Firstly,we down-sampled the images through the dark channel algorithm to estimate atmospheric light values. Then, we introduced a tolerance mechanism to deal with the bright regions that do not satisfy the dark channel prior. This tolerance mechanism corrected the estimate with incorrect refractive index of such regions and effectively mitigated the issues of color distortion and low contrast. Secondly, we detected the vertical edges of an approaching vehicle using the edge detection and the improved Hough transform algorithms. Finally, we measured the safe distance from the approaching vehicle using the model. The results shows that the platform developed in this study can effectively measure the distance of the approaching vehiclein fog with a visibility <100 m, and can alert drivers in a timely and effective manner.

    A multitask learning model for the prediction of short-term subway passenger flow
    ZHANG Hanxiao, LIU Yuran, LIU Yuan, NIU Zichen
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  95-106.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230038
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    An accurate prediction of short-term subway passenger flowscan effectively alleviate traffic congestion and improve the quality of travel services for urban residents. Herein, we propose a multitask learning-based model for the prediction of short-term subway passenger flows, which uses a residual convolutional neural network (NN) and a nested long short-term memory NN to extract the spatio-temporal correlation of traffic patterns, and introduces an attention mechanism to enhance the feature extraction performance of the NNs. Considering the characteristics of subway operations, the model selects train operation features, bus stops around subway stations, and point of interest data as external features to improve the accuracy of the prediction. Based on the historical data of the Beijing Subway, experiments were conducted in multiple time granularity scenarios, such as 10, 30, and 60 min. The results showed that the methodsuccessfully modeled and analyzed the inflow-outflow interaction through multitask learning, improved the prediction performance and generalization ability of the model, and providednovel approaches for the prediction of short-term subway passenger flows.

    The characteristics of traffic sequence data based on complex network
    MENG Bo, KONG Xiangke, LI Shubin
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  107-117.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230058
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    To study the traffic flow characteristics, the traffic data is analyzed using a complex network method. A box plot-clustering algorithm model is proposed to identify and fill in missing values and outliers in the initial data. The one-dimensional data is reconstructed into network nodes using the phase space reconstruction method. Additionally, the connection threshold is selected to determine the connection relationship of network nodes to convert the traffic sequence data as a complex network and analyze the structure and quantitative indicators of the network. The result shows that the structure of the complex network of traffic data can reflect the traffic flow state of the road section to a certain extent. The research optimizes the data preprocessing method and extends the application of complex networks into traffic data research.

    Dynamic route planning method for a high-speed rail feeder bus based on mixed demand
    WANG Yuqiong
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  118-127.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230050
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    To meet the needs of passengers for connection and evacuation at high-speed rail stations and enhance the role of high-speed rail stations as urban comprehensive transportation hubs, a dynamic route planning model of a high-speed rail feeder bus is established based on mixed demand that includes reservation and real-time demands. Based on the reservation demand, considering the operation cost of a bus company as well as the travel time cost, the route planning model is established before the start of operation. An improved genetic algorithm was designed using niche methods to solve the problem. After the start of operation, real-time demand can be inserted into the established vehicle route with temporary stations. To realize a dynamic route planning scheme, an integer planning model is established to minimize the variable cost of the system. Using the proposed method,30 demand groups were randomly generated and solved in the Beitaipingzhuang street area, Beijing. Results show that the model can generate an optimal dynamic route planning scheme for a high-speed rail feeder bus in two periods to satisfy the mixed demand. Compared with traditional genetic algorithm, niche genetic algorithm can effectively avoid premature and obtain better results, thus confirming the feasibility of the proposed model and the niche genetic algorithm.

    Environment and Ecology
    Climate change characteristics of foggy days in Qingdao and Jinan
    YANG Lei, ZOU Jin, DING Zuowei, GUO Lina
    Shandong Science. 2024, 37(1):  128-135.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.20230068
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    This study analyzed the climate change characteristics and causes of foggy days in Qingdao and Jinan using meteorological observation data from 1961 to 2020 in Qingdao and Jinan, as well as sea surface temperature data near Qingdao. Results showed that the average annual foggy days in Qingdao were 50.4 d, 3.1 times more than that in Jinan. The peak fog seasons were substantially different in the two cities; Qingdao experiences more foggy days in spring and summer, accounting for about 78.4% of the whole year, whereas Jinan experiences more foggy days in autumn and winter, accounting for about 70.7% of the whole year. Furthermore, remarkable differences in the annual and seasonal variations of foggy days were observed. Qingdao shows an increasing trend in annual foggy days, i.e., less foggy days in spring and summer, but significantly more in autumn and winter. Alternatively, Jinan exhibits a decreasing trend in annual foggy days, where the number of foggy days is lowest in autumn. Moreover, considerable climate variability and abrupt change in the number of annual foggy days between the two cities were noticed. The climate variability of Qingdao showed an increasing trend and remained at a high level, while Jinan witnessed a decreasing trend; this indicates a higher probability of extreme foggy weather in Qingdao than in Jinan. Qingdao witnessed an increase in the number of foggy days in 1969, while Jinan encountered a decrease in 1995. The increase in the number of foggy days in Qingdao during autumn and winter was closely related to the substantial increase in the sea surface temperature near the city. This increase promoted sea surface evaporation and subsequently increased the atmospheric water vapor content. However, the decrease in foggy days in Jinan during autumn and winter was closely associated with a substantial increase in the minimum temperature and the dew point temperature difference as well as reduced humidity.