Table of Content

    20 December 2023 Volume 36 Issue 6
    Oceanographic Science, Technology and Equipment
    Survey of underwater biological object detection methods based on deep learning
    YU Yu, GUO Baoqi, CHU Shibo, LI Heng, YANG Pengru
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  1-7.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.001
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    Underwater biological object detection is crucial for aquaculture, endangered species protection,and ecological environment monitoring. This study comprehensively analyzes the applications of various deep learning methods in underwater biological object detection. The commonly used underwater biological object detection datasets are introduced. The state-of-the-art underwater biological object detection methods are classified, analyzed, and summarized by two stages and one stage. The actual applications of various detection methods are thoroughly described, and the advantages and disadvantages of their optimization strategies are analyzed and summarized. Future works in the field of underwater biological object detection based on deep learning are presented. This study provides a reference basis for researchers in the field of underwater biological object detection.

    Streamline optimization analysis of side-scan sonar on small autonomous underwater vehicle
    LIU Jin, TAN Hua, SU Liang, QIU Guoji, LIU Rui, LUO Chongxin, WANG Yu, LIU Hao
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  8-14.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.002
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    Water dynamics analysis was conducted on a compact and portable autonomous underwater vehicle(AUV) with side-scan sonar and amodified AUV with streamlined side-scan sonar. The analysis focused on examining the drag forces experienced by both AUVs at different speeds. The results demonstrated that the streamlined side-scan sonar effectively reduced pressure and viscous drag forces, resulting in an overall drag reduction of 15.4% at a normal speed of 3 knots, with a 9% reduction in viscous drag and an 18% reduction in pressure drag.At a high speed of 6 knots, the overall drag was reduced by 10.1%, with a 4.2% reduction in viscous drag and a 12% reduction in pressure drag. These findings demonstrate that optimizing the streamlined design of the AUV with side-scan sonar can effectively enhance the dynamic performance of the AUV, reduce its drag force, and improve its efficiency and performance.

    Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Active Products
    The change in volatile compounds of Arecae Semen during stir-frying process based on gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry
    LI Changgeng, LI Junxian, PAN Shaobin, LIU Shuang, KONG Na, DONG Hongjing
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  15-21.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.003
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    Analysis of changes in volatile components during the stir-frying process of Arecae Semen can provide references for quality control of raw and stir-fried Arecae Semen. The content of volatile components in Arecae Semen at different stir-frying times was analyzed via gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS), and chemometrics was applied to screen differential components. Thirty-one volatile components were identified in the Arecae Semen, including aldehydes, esters, organic acids, and ketones. The level of volatile components significantly changed after stir-frying. The results of chemometrics showed that the changes in the level of dimethyl trisulfide, isovaleraldehyde, and ethyl acetate were significant. Based on GC-IMS and chemometrics, the changes in volatile components during the stir-frying process of Arecae Semen were well described, and provided a basis for identification and quality control of Arecae Semen stir-fried for different times.

    A survey on the current status of traditional Chinese medicine resources in Shizhong District, Jinan, Shandong Province
    LI Wanying, DUAN Wanying, LI Rui, RAN Zhifang, ZHOU Jie, FANG Lei
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  22-27.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.004
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    In order to provide basic data for the protection and sustainable utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) resources in Shizhong District, Jinan, Shandong Province, the species composition and distribution of wild TCM resources, the reserves of key medicinal materials, and the situation of cultivated medicinal materials in Shizhong District of Jinan were sorted out and analyzed by field resource investigation, specimen collection, cultivated medicinal materials investigation, data summary, and analysis. According to the investigation of 36 plots and 1 080 prescriptions, 206 kinds of TCM resources were collected, belonging to 64 families and 162 genera. Among them, the major wild medicinal materials, such as platyclus, cypress seed, and sour jujube seed, were abundant, and the cultivated medicinal materials were mainly Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., Polygonum multijiorum Thunb., Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC., and Lonicera japonica Thunb. Those are important measures to strengthen the protection of wild TCM resources, that strengthen the protection of wild TCM resources,guide the classification of TCM resources by regionalization, and carry out ecological planting of cultivated TCM and intercropping.

    Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Anti-Alzheimer's disease activity of oroxin A and its mechanism of action based on zebrafish model
    SHI Ruidie, GAO Xin, WANG Baokun, GAO Daili, JIN Meng, ZHANG Xiujun
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  28-37.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.005
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    To investigate the ameliorative effects of oroxin A on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the underlying mechanism of action, a zebrafish AD model induced by aluminum chloride hexahydrate (AlCl3) was used. Wild-type zebrafish AB larvae at 3 dpf(days post fertilization) were divided into different groups, including negative control group, AlCl3 (80 μmol/L) model control group, AlCl3 (80 μmol/L) combined with donepezil (6 μmol/L) positive control group, and AlCl3 (80 μmol/L) combined with different concentrations (5, 10, and 20 μmol/L) of oroxin A test group. At 6 dpf, zebrafish behavior was monitored and analyzed using zebrafish light-dark locomotion test. Aβ deposition in zebrafish heads was assayed by thioflavin S staining. Acetylcholine assay kit tested acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity. In addition, the expression of autophagy-related genes(beclin1ulk1bulk2 and atg7) was tested by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Molecular docking was performed to validate the interaction between oroxin A and autophagy-related protein(beclin1、ulk1b、ulk2 and atg7). The results indicated that oroxin A significantly relieved the dyskinesia and inhibited Aβ deposition and AchE activity of zebrafish induced by AlCl3. The expression of autophagy-related genes tended to be normal after oroxin A treatment. This study preliminarily revealed that oroxin A alleviated AlCl3-induced AD symptoms in zebrafish, where the underlying mechanism of action is possibly associated with activated autophagy, providing a theoretical basis for the clinical application of oroxin A and its related research in treating AD.

    Clinical significance of stromal cell score in gastric cancer and intervention with Weifuchun capsules
    CHEN Chun, QI Daqing, PAN Jingwen
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  38-47.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.006
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    Bioinformatics methods were used to analyse the association between stromal cells and clinical characteristics of gastric cancer, and to predict the intervention mechanism of Weifuchun capsule. Gastric cancer biopsy data were downloaded from TCGA database, the stromal score (STRS) was calculated based on ESTIMATE, and the median was used as the basis for grouping, and the association between STRS and patients' clinical information was analysed, and the DEGs were screened as the potential intervention targets. Based on the blood components of Weifuchun capsule, we predicted the drug targets, intersected DEGs with drug targets, and screened the core sub-networks and genes through PPI network and MCODE, and analysed the expression of differentially expressed genes in terms of survival prognosis and different stages of the disease. The drug-taste-intake component-target network was constructed to screen the core components, and ADMET prediction and molecular docking validation were performed. The intersecting targets were enriched by GO and KEGG. The results showed that STRS was significantly correlated with survival time and increased significantly with Stage and T stage, and 1 975 DEGs were analysed; 75 components of Weifuchun capsule into the blood, corresponding to 663 targets, and 107 intersecting targets; and 4 core sub-networks, of which VCAM1, SERPINE1, TLR4, FGF1 were the core target, and SERPINE1, PDGFRB expression correlated with survival time was highly significant (P<0.01), and the differences in the expression of VCAM1, NOX4, PDGFRB, ITGAL, etc. in different Stage phases were highly significant (P<0.01); isocryptoxanthin B, geranylgeranyl O, and bluocalyx methylin were the core components, with good ADMET properties and core target protein binding activity. GO was enriched in calcium ion concentration regulation, calcium ion homeostasis and other entries. KEGG is enriched in calcium signalling pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and other pathways. Stromal cells are closely related to survival time and stage, and Weifuchun capsule may inhibit tumour growth, metastasis and delay drug resistance by regulating stromal cells.

    Investigating the mechanism of action of Elephantopus scaber L. in the treatment of ulcerative colitis based on network pharmacology and molecular docking
    MU Nana, LIAO Binbin, LI Zhen, LI Jipin, LI Yihua, WANG Ying, CHEN Xubing
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  48-55.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.007
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    Investigating the molecular mechanism of Elephantopus scaber L. in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) based on network pharmacology and molecular docking techniques. The chemical composition of Elephantopus scaber L. was determined based on literature research, the active ingredients were screened using the SwissADME database, and the targets were predicted by SwissTargetPrediction database. The GeneCards, Disgenet, PharmGKB, and TTD databases were used to obtain the relevant targets for UC, and the topological analysis was performed. The Metascape database was used to perform Gene Ontology (GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) was used for biological pathway enrichment analysis on the candidate targets. In addition, the RCSB PDB database and Chemdraw, PyMoL, AutoDock 4.2.6 was used for molecular docking validation and visualization of core components and key targets. 34 potential targets were screened out, and GO function and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed on the key targets. The results showed that Elephantopus scaber L. can regulate systemic processes, negatively regulate the response to external stimuli, and regulate apoptosis signaling pathways. MAPK3, PIK3CA, STAT3, and JAK2 are regulated by biological processes such as responses to mechanical stimuli. Therefore it participates in the regulation of various KEGG signaling pathways, such as cancer signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, Helicobacter pylori infection epithelial cell signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway, etc. to treat UC.The molecular docking results showed that each active ingredient had good affinity to the key targets. The mechanism of Elephantopus scaber L. in treating UC may be related to inhibiting the expression of MAPK3, PIK3CA, STAT3 and other targets, and relieving the inflammatory reaction of colon tissue.

    Exploringtrait genes and predicting the targeted Chinese medicine for ulcerative colitis based on bioinformatics and machine learning
    LIANG Jiahao, ZHANG Xinhui, WANG Hai
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  56-67.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.008
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    For the identification of potential biomarkers for ulcerative colitis (UC) and prediction of their targeted traditional Chinese medicines, datasets containing human UC and healthy control tissues (GSE179285, GSE206285, and GSE87466) were downloaded from the GEO database. The GSE179285 and GSE206285 datasets were merged, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between UC and healthy control tissues were screened using the limma R package. The LASSO regression model and SVM-RFE (support vector machine recursive feature elimination) algorithm were used to identify core biomarkers. The GSE87466 dataset was used as a validation cohort, and the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. CIBERSORT was used to investigate the immune infiltration characteristics in UC, and the correlation between potential biomarkers and different immune cells was further analyzed. Subsequently, the targeted traditional Chinese medicinal herbs were predicted using the HERB database. In total, 157 DEGs were screened out, with 102 genes upregulated and 55 genes downregulated. Functional enrichment analysis showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in IL-17 and TNF signaling pathway, rheumatoid arthritis, chemokine signaling pathway, humoral immune response, neutrophil chemotaxis, neutrophil migration, etc. LOC389023, OLFM4, AQP8, and CWH43 were identified as potential biomarkers for UC, and their diagnostic values were significant in the GSE87466 validation dataset. CIBERSORT immune infiltrate analysis showed significant differences in immune infiltration characteristics between UC and healthy control tissues. High levels of CD4+ memory activated T cells, M1 macrophages, and neutrophils were found in the UC group, while high levels of memory B cells, CD4+ memory resting T cells, M2 macrophages, and resting dendritic cells were found in the healthy control group. Seven traditional Chinese medicinal herbs targeting core biomarkers, including Sojae Semen Praeparatum, Fructus Viticis Cannabifoliae, Herba Equiseti Palustris, Liquor, Sophora alopecuroides L., Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum, and Placenta Hominis, were predicted in the HERB database. The study suggested that LOC389023, OLFM4, AQP8, and CWH43 were identified as diagnostic biomarkers for UC, and the aforementioned seven targeted traditional Chinese medicinal herbs may play a therapeutic role in UC by regulating gut microbiota, affecting inflammation pathways, and modulating the immune system.

    Optical Fiber and Photonic Sensing Technology
    Fault detection of an on-load tap changer based on generative adversarial network
    JIANG Xiaodong, WANG Leilei, SUN Peng, YANG Guang, GENG Junqi, WANG Jiawen, HUANG Sheng, QU Shuai, WANG Chen, SHANG Ying
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  68-73.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.009
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    The probability of power transformer failure is extremely low, which leads to a great impact on further in-depth analysis results due to unbalanced data when processing transformer fault data. To solve these problems, this study processes and judges the unbalanced data using an confrontation neural network combined with an artificial neural network, uses the distributed acoustic wave sensing technology based on ultraweak fiber Bragg gratings to collect and analyze the data of the simulation site of the transformer built in a laboratory, and achieves good results on the collected transformer fault simulation data. This method has an important referential significance for developing the small sample fault identification system of the on-load transformer using confrontation generation network.

    Traffic and Transportation
    An approximate model and algorithm for throughput rate of a docked bike-sharing system
    WANG Jingyan, ZHANG Yong
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  74-85.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.010
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    In this paper, an approximate model and algorithm for the throughput rate are established by studying a docked bike-sharing system (DBSS) using stochastic user demands, routing matrix, and cycling times. A DBSS with a fixed number of bikes can be considered a closed queuing network with a buffered M/M/1 queue at each station, thus establishing an approximate model and algorithm for the throughput rate of DBSS. This algorithm can calculate the average number of bikes on roads and at stations. Moreover, it can estimate the average cycling time on roads and bike dwell time at stations and further determine the optimal number of bikes achieving the maximum throughput rate in the DBSS. Additionally, this paper proposes a method to determine whether a station is a bike surplus station or a bike deficient station under given user demands, routing matrix, cycling time matrix, and dock allocation. Finally, the approximate algorithm is verified in a real-world DBSS. The results show that the throughput rate of the DBSS increases in a step-wise manner with the increasing bike input under an superior limit. When the number of bike inputs exceeds the optimal quantity, there will be idle bikes, and the spatial distribution of bike surplus stations and bike deficient stations will remain unchanged.

    The method to construct an urban logistics unmanned aerial vehicles low-altitude hub-and-spoke network
    QU Xinyu, YE Bojia, CHENG Yu, LEI Changding
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  86-95.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.011
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    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have considerable application potential in urban logistics delivery. However, there are many uncertainties in urban low-altitude airspace operation scenarios. Therefore, it is essential to build a safe and orderly logistics UAV delivery network using scientific methods. From the perspectives of delivery economy, operational safety, and features of logistics UAVs, an integer programming model of multilevel hub-and-spoke network was constructed based on the original ground logistics delivery network. A network construction method was proposed, which combines partitioning around medoids(PAM) clustering with distance restrictions and integer programming. Three evaluation indicators were selected, i.e., delivery timeliness, network security, and network structure characteristics, to compare the constructed logistics UAV delivery network with the original ground delivery network. A logistics UAV delivery network was constructed in Jiangning District of Nanjing city to verify the feasibility of the proposed network construction method. The experimental results show that the UAV delivery network constructed using this method has good delivery timeliness while taking delivery costs and safety into account.

    Model for the decision optimization of opening urban enclosed communities
    WANG Yan, CHEN Qun
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  96-104.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.012
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    For larger enclosed communities, it is necessary to open the existing entrances or add some entrances to allow external vehicles or pedestrians to pass through for smooth urban traffic microcirculation and alleviating traffic congestion and the mutual interference between pedestrians and motor vehicles. Considering the actual situation of a community and the traffic distribution, with the goal of minimizing the total travel time and the cost of construction to open the community as the upper level model, the existing and alternative entrances are open to external vehicles or pedestrians as decision variables, and the combined (walking and car travel) mode choice and route choice with user equilibrium model as the lower level model, a bi-level programming model of decision-making optimization for opening closed communities was established. The genetic algorithm is applied for the upper level model and Frank-Wolfe algorithm is applied for the lower level model, and a solution algorithm of the bi-level programming model was proposed. Finally, the model and algorithm were verified by a sample, discovering the setting of traffic micro circulation and optimizing the plan, the total time spent has been reduced by about 26%. This proves that the model and algorithm proposed in this article have practical engineering application value, and can effectively reduce traffic congestion and improve traffic efficiency.

    Optimization on supply-demand matching of fire stations with capacity constraints
    ZHOU Tong, MENG Zihao, LIU Kanglin
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  105-111.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.013
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    In order to improve the emergency service level of the fire station and reduce the emergency response time, this paper has improved the current traditional method of manual decision-making on the supply and demand matching of rescue. Based on the full investigation of empirical data and automatic batch acquisition of geographic data, this paper proposed an optimization strategy for the supply and demand matching of fire rescue stations considering service capacity, and constructed it as a mixed integer programming model. Then, based on the actual distribution of fire rescue stations in Xicheng District of Beijing and the location of high-frequency demand nodes, this model was validated. The research results showed that compared to the manual decision only considering the service distance, the mathematical model proposed in this paper can realize the automatic matching of fire rescue facilities in a short time, fully dispatch the rescue service capacity, and provide a new solution for optimizing the emergency rescue supply and demand service matching.

    Environment and Ecology
    Progress of applied research on the ecological degradation and restoration of wetlands in the Yellow River Delta: a review
    CAI Xinyan, WANG Yi, CHEN Yingkai
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  112-120.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.014
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    A systematic review was conducted on the current status and causes of the ecological degradation of wetlands in the Yellow River Delta (YRD), and the ecological restoration technologies were summarized. The results revealed that the wetland areas in the YRD are currently in a serious state of degradation, with the total area of wetlands shrinking year by year. Along with the shrinking of the wetland area, the wetland composition has changed, natural wetlands are decreasing while artificial wetlands are gradually increasing, the pattern of the landscape shows a trend toward fragmentation, and the service function of the ecosystem has been seriously degraded. The main causes of wetland ecological degradation in the YRD include the reduction of water and sediment fluxes from the Yellow River, increased sea-land interactions, intensified salinization of the soil, climate change, invasive species, and human activities. Current ecological restoration techniques for wetland restoration include biocomponent restoration, water body restoration, soil improvement, and comprehensive habitat restoration. This study will utimately provide specific recommendations for wetland restoration in the YRD, which is of great significance for the national strategy of ecological protection and the high-quality development of the YRD.

    Research progress in high-salinity wastewater treatment by the freeze concentration method
    WANG Xiaokai, ZHAO Changsheng, LI Luzhen, ZHANG Bowei, LIU Xuzhen, TAN Yu
    Shandong Science. 2023, 36(6):  121-130.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2023.06.015
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    The industrial production process produces large quantities of high-salinity wastewater comprising complex water-quality components, including a large amount of Na+, Cl-, SO42-, and other salts as well as toxic substances. Traditional high-salinity wastewater treatment technology has low efficiency and high operating cost. The freeze concentration method for high-salinity wastewater treatment has received widespread attention as a highly efficient and clean treatment technology without secondary pollution. However, the problem of impurities in the ice crystals prepared via freeze concentration should be solved urgently. This article summarizes the research progress of freeze concentration technology in high-salinity wastewater treatment in recent years. The key parameters such as freezing time, freezing temperature, and initial solution concentration were discussed, and various methods for removing impurities from ice crystals, including immersion, gravity, and water addition purification methods, were investigated. To accelerate the desalination process and improve the desalination effect, nucleating agent and ultrasonic-assisted freeze concentration methods were investigated. Furthermore, the energy consumption of the freeze concentration technology was economically analyzed. Moreover, the development of the technology is summarized and a prospect is proposed to provide specific references for the development and application of freeze concentration method in high-salinity wastewater treatment.