Table of Content

    20 June 2018 Volume 31 Issue 3
    Oceanographic Science, Technology and Equipment
    The analysis between wave estimation error and influencing factors based on BP model when ADCP tilts
    ZHENG Wei,YANG Ying,HUI Li, LU Cheng-jie,ZHAO Bin,YANG Li
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  1-7.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1671KB) ( )  
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    Considering that the existing tilt correction is not accurate when ADCP is tilted, the BP neural network model is used to analyze the nonlinear relationship between wave estimation error and various influencing factors such as ADCP pitching angle, roll angle and setting depth. The result shows that real wave directional spectrum and wave directional spectrum that BP neural network predicts are in good agreement. BP neural network model can improve wave estimation accuracy.

    Research on representation and transmission mode of ocean observing spatio-temporal data oriented to distributed sharing
    SONG Miao-miao, LI Wen-qing, WANG Wen-yan, LIU Shi-xuan, WANG Xiao-yan, MIAO Bin
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  8-18.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (11534KB) ( )  
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    By focusing on the bottleneck of network transmission performance in the distributed sharing of ocean spatio-temporal monitoring data, the representation and transmission mode in distributed cloud computing environment was proposed to establish an efficient service-oriented sharing framework for ocean spatiotemporal data. While adopting GML, KML and GeoJSON to encode ocean observing data, a data transmission mode based on real-time compression was proposed. The applicability of compression algorithms to ocean monitoring data enhanced the efficiency of data real-time transmission. Finally, based on the Ali cloud computing platform, a distributed GIS system for marine applications was designed and deployed as the testbed, and systematic experiments were conducted. The experimental results reveal that using the combination of GeoJSON and Deflate-6 / GZIP to establish the ocean observing spatiotemporal data representation and transmission mode shows better applicability and more outstanding performance advantages in distributed sharing and integration system.

    Traditional Chinese medicine and natural active products
    Research on determination of ingredients in Dingbai plaster by HPLC
    ZHANG Hui,ZHANG Li-mei,LIU Shan-xin,SU Ming,LI Ying,ZHAO Li-jian
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  19-22.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1114KB) ( )  
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    A method was established to determine the content of Eugenol and paeoniflorin in Dingbai plaster by HPLC. The analysis was performed on Lichrospher C18(4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) column, with the mobile phase of methanolwater (52:48,V/V). At a flow rate of 1 mL·min-1, the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. The column temperature was kept at 30 ℃, and the content of eugenol in preparation was determined; with the mobile phase of acetonitrilewater (13:87,V/V),at a flow rate of 1 mL·min-1,the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm, the column temperature was kept at 30 ℃, and the content of paeoniflorin in preparation was determined. Better linear relationship exists in the range 0.047 2~0.472 μg (R=1.000 0) for eugenol. And in the range 0.054 6~0.491 4 μg (R=0.999 9) for paeoniflorin. The method is simple, reproducible, accurate and reliable. It can be used as a method for the determination of the content of Dingbai plaster.

    Study on the inhibitory effects of different solvent extracts from Astragali  Radix on prostatic hyperplasia
    LUO Meng-xiong, LIN Gui-tao
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  23-27.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.004
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    The inhibitory effects of different solvent extracts from Astragali  Radix  on benign prostatic hyperplasiawere compared in this paper so as to lay a foundation for the search of active ingredients of Astragali  Radix  against prostatic hyperplasia. The effects of three different concentrations of ethanol extracts and water extracts on the prostate coefficient of prostate hyperplasia model rats, the contraction strength of isolated bladder detrusor muscle, serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations were compared. Results showed that the four solvent extracts of Astragali  Radix  had a good inhibitory effect on the prostate coefficient of model rats (P<0.01). The effect of 95% ethanol extract was more obvious, and there was a significant difference when compared with other three groups(P<0.05); The four extracts also increased the contractile strength of the bladder detrusor strips in model rats and reduced the serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations in the model rats. The 95% ethanol extract group was even more effective than other extract groups, and there was a significant difference when compared with other three extract groups (P<0.01). Thus, it can be concluded, different solvent extracts of Astragali  Radix  have good inhibition on BPH in rats, and the effect of 95% ethanol extract is better. The mechanism may be related to decreasing the concentrations of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in serum. The active ingredient may be flavonoid aglycone, which is mainly composed of calycosin.

    New Materials
    Preparation and mechanical properties of tungsten carbidebased cemented carbides
    YAN Xin-yu, WANG Shou-ren,WANG Yong
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  28-33.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.005
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    A certain amount of cobalt, tantalum carbide and hafnium carbide powder were added to tungsten carbide powder to prepare a cemented carbide sample through mixing, ball milling, cold forming and hot pressing sintering. The hardness, bending strength, impact toughness, and micromorphology of the specimens were studied using a 1 000 N dimensional microhardness tester, a threepoint bending test, an XJJ-5 impact tester, and a scanning electron microscope, then the mechanism of improving the mechanical properties of the specimen was discussed. The results show that the addition of hafnium carbide can effectively improve the sintering quality, inhibit the growth of tungsten carbide grains and improve the mechanical properties of the samples. The samples with hafnium carbide content of 2% have the best mechanical properties.

    Experimental study on two-stage aging treatment of ZTM630 magnesium alloy
    WANG Na-na, ZHOU Ji-xue, LIU Yu, ZHAO Dong-qing, MA Bai-chang, YANG Yuan-sheng
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  34-38.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.006
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    By changing the finalaging time, the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of extruded Mg-6Zn-3Sn-0.5Mn alloy were investigated by means of optical electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that through the twostep aging treatment, the suitable parameter was 90 ℃×12 h+180 ℃×8 h. Under this parameter, ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the alloy reached 383.1 MPa,7.667%, respectively. After two-step aging treatment, there were dispersed and fine precipitates precipitated in matrix and grain boundaries, which were mainly of Mg2Sn and MgZn2 phases. During the process of stretching, the precipitation strengthen effect of dispersed fine precipitated phase and the strengthening effect inhibiting the grain movement made the mechanical properties of the alloy better.

    Energy and Power
    Thermal performance of a new kind of heat sink fabricated by flat aluminum multiport extruded tubes for electronic devices cooling
    TANG Sheng,ZHAO Yao-hua, DIAO Yan-hua,QUAN Zhen-hua
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  39-47.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.007
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    This study proposed a new kind of mini/microchannel heat sink fabricated by flat aluminum multiport extruded tubes, which was reliable for structure and simple for manufacturing process. In order to investigate the thermal characteristics of heat sinks, a threedimensional conjugated heat transfer model was developed. Meanwhile, an experiment was conducted to verify the reliability of the model, which included channel aspect ratio, channel width ratio and channel number on thermal resistance under pumping power consumption(Ω=0.03 W). In addition, the overall resistance of heat sink was divided into three parts (conduction resistance, convective resistance, and heat capacity resistance) and calculated in detail. Moreover, the effect of width and height of fins on enhancement of heat transfer factor (PEC) was discussed, and the optimized width of fins was calculated. This study provides a reference for the design of this kind of heat sink.

    Thermal performance analysis of sunflower radiator
    JIA Lei, JI Can, JIANG Ya-ke, LIU Zhi-gang
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  48-54.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.008
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    For a sunflower radiator with a length of 10 cm, a fin number of 18, a fin thickness of 0.7 mm, and a fin height of 14 mm, numerical simulation model was established. The simulation was verified by experiments and errors were within 3.5%, which proved that the simulation result was reliable. Based on this, numerical simulation was carried out to study the quantitative relationship between radiator length, fin number, fin height and fin thickness vs. fin temperature and heat transfer coefficient. The results show that under the same amount of heat dissipation, the fin temperature and heat transfer coefficient decrease with the increase of the radiator length, while the fin temperature decreases first and then increases with the increase of fin number. Therefore, there is an optimal number of fins to maximize heat dissipation. The fin temperature decreases with height, while the fin thickness has little effect on the fin temperature.

    Optical Fiber and Photonic sensingtechnology
    Design of high precision fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor for rapid measurement of oil well temperature profile
    LI San-xi,MA Long, Lü Jing-sheng,ZHANG Fa-xiang,LIU Xiao-hui, ZHAO Qing-chao,LI Hui,WANG Chang
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  55-60.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.009
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    Aiming at the high precision and rapid measurement of the downhole temperature profile, a new kind of walking highprecision fiber grating temperature sensor was designed in this paper. The ultrafine stainless steel tube was used for pressure encapsulation. The theoretical simulation of the temperature response speed was carried out, and the impact of the downhole high pressure on the measurement accuracy was analyzed. The sensor with a diameter of 1.2 mm was demodulated by commercial highprecision demodulator. The results show that the resolution of the FBG temperature sensor is better than 0.01 oC, the linear range of the temperature reaches 175 oC, the response time is less than 108 ms, and the resistance to pressure is up to 100 MPa. This sensor can meet the needs of rapid measurement of the oil well temperature profile.

    Research on signal postprocessing algorithm of distributed optical fiber vibration detection system
    LI Chang, WANG Chen, SHANG Ying, ZHAO Wen-an, CAO Bing, HUANG Sheng, NI Jia-sheng, WANG Chang
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  61-65.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.010
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    For the problem that the phasesensitive distributed vibration detection system is susceptible to environmental noise in practical engineering applications, theoretical simulation and field test verification of the filtering algorithm were performed on the system signal. The results show that the highpass filtered differential and average processing of the original signal can effectively remove largescale, lowfrequency and periodic noise signals in the environment. The system signalnoise ratio is improved by 50% and the detection effect is enhanced.

    Tranfic and Transportation
    Equilibrium assignment model and algorithm for multi-modal traffic super network considering distance factor
    ZHOU Hao,SI Bing-feng,WANG Qin-zheng
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  66-75.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.011
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    In the multimodal transportation system, travel distance is an important factor that influences the traffic mode choice and route choice. Thus considering the influences that travel distance exerted on different perceived costs, a multimodal user equilibrium assignment method was proposed in this paper. Firstly, travel behaviors of travelers in the multimodal transportation system were analyzed. Based on the graph theory, a multimodal supernetwork model for  describing general trip process was constructed, besides the effective hyperpath and the subpath was defined. Secondly, the calculation methods of two main quantitative factors including time and cost in different travel processes were analyzed, and the generalized cost functions of travel were constructed considering the impacts that travel distance exerted on the perceived costs of travelers. Based on these, a multimodal traffic network assignment model based on user equilibrium criterion was proposed, and a shortest path search algorithm based on subpath cost was proposed. Finally, a simple example was applied to validate the model. The results show that the proposed model and algorithm are feasible and effective.

    Research on the method for estimating intersection turning volume based on the equilibrium of the link flow volumes
    LAN Hui-hui, WU Xian-yu, YIN Yong-hao
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  76-84.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.012
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    When the traffic volume is investigated, the traffic volume at the entrance and exit of the road section is not equal due to nonsynchronous observation time, observation errors or other reasons. However, in the study of OD matrix estimation, the traffic balance of the road section is required. In order to solve this problem, three methods for calculating the flow balance of road section were proposed, which were based on the simple and quick calculation, uniform flow distribution, and the reduction of flow change rate. MATLAB software was used to write the program to obtain the calculation results. What’s more, three evaluation indicators were proposed to verify the reliability of the balance calculation method. Finally, taking the actual road network consisting of three horizontal lines and three vertical lines as an example, the proposed method was used to calculate, and the proposed method was verified to be feasible and effective, when combined with the actual situation evaluation and analysis. The results can be used to route traffic distribution, and provide basic data for the traffic signal coordination control.

    Multiclass user equilibrium traffic assignment algorithms by paired alternative segments
    WU Chao-feng, LONG Jian-cheng, LIU Hao-xiang
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  85-93.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.013
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    Towards the goal of efficiently obtaining the accurate solution of multiclass user equilibrium, this paper first developed a variational inequality (VI) model and a gap function for the multiclass traffic assignment problem, according to the multiclass user equilibrium condition. Then, a new solution algorithm was proposed to solve the VI model based on the concept of paired alternative segments (PAS). To show the performance of the proposed solution algorithm, we compared the algorithm with extragradient projection method, userbased diagonalization algorithm and originbased diagonalization algorithm via numerical tests on four largescale urban networks. The computational results demonstrate that the algorithm based on PAS outperforms other algorithms in the aspects of solution quality, efficiency and stability.

    Other Research Article
    Analysis of the effect of technological progress in Shanghai based on inputoutput method
    MA Peng-qing
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  94-100.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.014
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    In this paper, the inputoutput model, combined with the data of Shanghai Statistics Bureau, was used to estimate the contribution rates of technological progress of various sectors in Shanghai, and analyze the role of technological progress on the economic growth and industrial structure adjustment. It is found that, in terms of the absolute value of technological progress, technological progress in Shanghai has a positive effect on the economic growth of 19 sectors in 2007—2012 and the three industries technological progress has a positive effect on financial industry.

    Diversity and characteristics of plants community in Guimengding of Mengshan National Forest Park
    YANG Qi, JIANG Fang-zheng, LI Hao-dong, DONG Shu-gang
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  101-107.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.015
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    This paper elaborated species diversity and characteristics of plants community in Guimengding of Mengshan National Forest Park by taking quadrat survey method. The results showed that 43 kinds of vascular plants were recorded in four plots (total 1 600 m2), which belonging to 18 families and 31 genera. Community vertical structures of the four plots were obvious, which could be divided into tree layer, shrub layer and herbaceous layer, with different major species including Quercus variabilis, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla and Commelina communis respectively. From the average value of species diversity index, species richness (S), diversity (H'), evenness (E), dominance (D) showed that the order from big to small is herb layer,shrub layer and tree layer. However, there were certain differences in species diversity at the same level of the 4 plots. It is suggested that the dominant plant species should be protected, and the development of diversity of plants community should be strengthened at the same time so as to promote the ecology function of the plants community in Guimengding of Mengshan National Forest Park.

    eteroscyphus Schiffn. —a new record of gerus bryophyte to Shandong Province
    TIAN Ya-xian,REN Zhao-jie,WANG Chun-xiao,ZHAO Zun-tian
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  108-109.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.016
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    Heteroscyphus saccogynoides Herzog collected from Mt. Meng in Mengyin county was reported as a new record to Shandong Province, China. Meanwhile, Heteroscyphus Schiffn. was also recorded in Shandong Province for the first time. A detail description with ink drawing of H. saccogynoides and a brief discussion were provided.

    Hypogymnia incurvoides, a new record of lichen species in China
    LIU Da-le, WEI Xin-li, LI Cui-xin
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  110-112.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.017
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    In order to recognize the species diversity of lichen genus Hypogymnia in China, and to explore its chemical and genetic resources in the near future, systematic taxonomic study on this group based on morphological and chemical methods was carried out. A lichen species, Hypogymnia incurvoides, widely distributed in China, was reported and described in the present paper. It was characterized by hollow and pinnatebranched lobes with lipshaped soralia, few holes at lower surface and containing physodalic acid in medulla. Previously, this species has only been found and recorded in Russia. Therefore, this report confirmed its distribution in China for the first time, increased the records of Chinese lichen species, and updated the world distribution information of Hypogymnia incurvoides. The voucher specimens in this study are deposited in the Lichen Section, Herbarium of Mycology, Academia Sinica (HMASL).

    Spectroscopic characteristics and structural identification of cefamandole nafate
    LIN Yun-liang, GAO Hong-mei, LI Feng, WEI Xiang-yu,WANG Zhi-wei, JIANG Hai-long, WANG Dai-jie
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  113-118.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.018
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    A method was established for the chemical structure determination of cefamandole nafate by analytical instruments. The elemental analyzer was used to analyze the elemental composition of cefamandole nafate, and nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, infrared spectrometry and ultraviolet spectrometry were adopted to analyze the chemical structure of cefamandole nafate. The chemical structure of cefamandole nafate was confirmed to be sodium 7-D-[(2-hydroxy-2phenylacetyl)amino]3-{[(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)sulfanyl]methyl}-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate. This method is accurate and practical, which can provide a comprehensive reference for the structural identification of cefamandole nafate.

    Improvement of local repair mechanism for Zigbee network based on reverse routing
    HE Zhi-yong
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(3):  119-124.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.03.019
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    Aiming at the defects of time delay and data packet loss in ZigBee network link repair mechanism, an improved local repair algorithm (ILRAAODVjr) for Zigbee networks was proposed in this paper. Based on the reverse routing mechanism of leisure routing nodes, a twohop reverse routing SRREQ packet was broadcast to the neighbor nodes, which generated a plurality of alternate local routing for the leisure node, increased the number of effective routes in the network, improved the speed of network discovery, and shortened the local fault recovery time. The simulation results show that the improved local repair algorithm for Zigbee network can effectively reduce the response time of network fault repair, prolong the network life cycle, and reduce the network congestion and delay.