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    20 April 2018 Volume 31 Issue 2
      
    Oceanographic Science, Technology and Equipment
    Development of five-parameter in situ seawater nutrients analyzer
    GUO Cui-lian, ZHANG Shu-wei, CHENG Yong-qiang, MA Ran, CHU Dong-zhi, ZHANG Li
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  1-8.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5417KB) ( )  
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    A five-parameter in situ seawater nutrients analyzer was developed based on wet chemical reaction principle, combined the spectrophotometric method with flow injection analysis technology. A loop flow was controlled by peristaltic pump and three-way valve in this analyzer, which has the advantages of small size, high-stability, lowreagent consumption and high automation. The linear range, detection limit, accuracy and precision of the instrument were verified through the experiment. The detection linear ranges for nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate were 5~250, 10~500, 10~500, 10~300 and 10~1 000 μg/L, respectively. The minimum detection limits for nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate were 0.81, 3.01, 1.79, 2.54 and 3.02 μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for nitrite, ammonium and silicate were less than 3% and the relative standard deviations (RSD) for nitrate and phosphate were less than 5%. The on-site comparison tests between the developed nutrients analyzer and the national standard methods were finished, and the results were basically the same, which indicated that the analyzer was entirely feasible and could reflect the content and changes of the nutrients in the seawater. The nutrients analyzer can be loaded on vessel, stations, buoy platform, and also can be used in the laboratory.

    Design of an automatic drawing mechanism of probe plug in marine Expendable Bathythermograph launching system
    DONG Lei,LEI Zhuo,HE Hai-jing, CHEN Guang-yuan
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  9-13.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3516KB) ( )  
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    According to the problems of the handheld launching method of expendable bathythermograph (XBT) , such as measurement disturbances from operators, an automatic drawing mechanism for the probe plug in the sea trials was proposed in this work. The lever was adopted here to magnify the tensile force in order to draw out the plug in limited stroke, which would make sure the full-automatic launching of expendable probes. The effectiveness and reliability of this mechanism has been verified by the corresponding laboratory tests. The success rate of probes deployment is over 95% and the mean time of the operation time is shortened more than 50%. The mechanism can also be used into various automatic launchers of expendable probes through a little configuration adjustment, which has a wide field of applications.

    Traditional Chinese medicine and natural active products
    Simultaneous determination of wogonin, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid and chrysin-7-O-Beta-D-glucoronide in rats plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS
    LI Cui, LUO Meng-xiong, NIE Qi-xia, ZANG Chen, WANG Guo-hua, LUO Gan, ZHANG Bao-xian
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  14-20.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1564KB) ( )  
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    A rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of wogonin, 4dicaffeoylquinic acid and chrysin-7-O-Beta-D-glucoronide in rats plasma. Apiin was selected as the internal standard. The analysis was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm), with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution, gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.2 mL·min-1. Linear responses were obtained for wogonin, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid and chrysin-7-O-Beta-D-glucoronide ranging from 1 to 1 000 ng·mL-1. The correlation coefficients were better than 0.99. Both recovery rates and matrix effects met the requirement of biological sample analysis. The established UHPLC-MS/MS quantitative analysis method shows high sensitivity, accuracy and satisfying recovery, and can be utilized to determine the pharmacokinetic data of wogonin, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid and chrysin-7-O-Beta-D-glucoronide in rats plasma.

    Based on the UPLC method for simultaneous determination of rutin, luteoloside, chlorogenic acid and quercetin from Salix songarica flower
    HAN Fei,WANG Miao-miao, MAO Qiong-ling,ZHANG Qian,LI Mu-chun
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  21-24.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1014KB) ( )  
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    A UPLC method for the determination of rutin, luteoloside, chlorogenic acid and quercetin from Salix songarica flower was established. The analysis was separated on ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column, with acetonitrile (A) and water (containing 0.2% acetic acid, B), gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.29 mL/min and detected at 360 nm; the column temperature was 30 ℃. The linear range was 0.05~3.12 μg/mL (r=0.999 8), and the average recovery was 99.9%,with the RSD of 1.6% for rutin. The linear range was 0.03~9.00 μg/mL (r=0.999 5), and the average recovery was 98.8%,with the RSD of 0.8% for luteolin. The linear range was 0.01~5.00 μg/mL (r=0.999 7), and the average recovery was 97.6%,with the RSD of 1.7% for quercetin. The linear range was 0.001~0.05 μg/mL (r=0.999 8), and the average recovery was 99.0%,with the RSD of 2.0% for chlorogenic acid. This method was accurate and reliable, which can be regarded as a reference to control the quality of rutin, luteolin, quercetin and chlorogenic acid in the Salix songarica flower.

    Agricultural Microbiology
    Effects of maize straw incorporation and decomposing inoculants on wheat yield, soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities
    CHEN Shi-geng,SONG Yi-ling,YU Jian2XIAO Cheng-ze,LI Yu-huan,DING Fang-jun,ZHANG Min
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  25-31.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.005
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    The effects of maize straw incorporation and decomposition inoculants on soil physical and chemical properties, microbial biomass, enzyme activity and wheat yield were studied by field experiment. Results showed that, compared with the treatment that without straw incorporation (CK), straw incorporation (T1) and straw incorporation with decomposition inoculants (T2) significantly decreased soil bulk density, increased the number of soil bacteria and actinomycetes, and the activities of some rhizosphere soil enzyme, such as soil urease, neutral phosphatase and invertase, and further increased the content of soil available nutrients and organic matter, and the final wheat yields significantly increased by 10.33% and 13.46%, respectively. In addition, compared with CK, T2 decreased the number of fungi, and increased soil catalase and dehydrogenase activity in rhizosphere soil, but the differences in T1 treatment were not obvious. In summary, straw return could regulate soil enzyme activity and nutrient content by improving microbial community biomass and diversity, thus optimizing rhizosphere environment and promoting wheat growth. Among them, the treatment effect of straw incorporation with decomposition inoculants was better than only straw incorporation treatment, which could be popularized and applied in maize planting area of the north of China.

    Field experiment for control of wheat Rhizoctonia cerealis by Trichoderma water-dispersible granules
    LU De-peng,WU Yuan-zheng,HU Jin-dong,WANG Xiu-juan,LI Ji-shun
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  32-35.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (960KB) ( )  
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    In this study, the effect of Trichoderma water dispersible granules (1×108 cfu/g) on the control of wheat sheath blight was tested by field experiment. The results showed that the control effect of Trichoderma seed dressing and root irrigation reached 71.59% and the increasing yield rate of wheat was 16.8%. Both were obviously higher than that of the control pesticide, 20% Jinggangmycin soluble powder. As a microbial pesticide, Trichoderma water dispersible granules have the advantages of environmental safety, high selectivity, and not easy to induce resistance by pathogen.

    New Materials
    Review on the applications of magnesium and magnesium alloy in implanted medical devices
    WU Shu-xu, WANG Shou-ren, LIU Wen-tao
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  36-44.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1115KB) ( )  
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    As biomedical materials, magnesium and magnesium alloy has advantages of excellent mechanical properties and biological compatibility, completely selfdegradation, rich in resources, and easy to process molding. Its application status quo and latest research advances in the field of orthopedics and cardiovascular were surveyed in this paper. It is considered that the main problems of magnesium and magnesium alloy implanted medical devices are the poor corrosion resistance in vivo and the failure to control the rate of degradation effectively. Therefore, it should be developed in the future to improve its corrosion resistance and control the rate of degradation,which is expected to be more widely used in clinical practice.

    Tribological properties of modified graphene lubricant
    XUE Chuan-yi, WANG Shou-ren, LENG Jin-feng, WANG Gao-qi, QIAO Yang
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  45-49.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.008
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    This paper studied on adding graphene in lubricating oil add to improve its extreme pressure antiwear performance. The surface of graphene was modified by oleic acid and stearic acid. The morphology of modified graphene was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The stability of modified graphene in suspension was observed by spectrophotometer. Friction and wear testing machine was used to test the tribological properties of lubricating oil with modified graphene. The results showed that the morphology of graphene changed after surface modification, which improved the suspension stability in lubricating oil. A modified graphene with a mass fraction of 0.075% was added to the lubricant, whose wear resistance and loadbearing capacity were greatly improved.

    Optical Fiber and Photonic sensingtechnology
    Investigation of pipe thickness monitoring using the shear wave EMAT technology with high liftoff distance
    HUANG Xian-bin, ZHAO Yang*, JU Yang, SONG Jiang-feng, CHEN Jian-wei, GUO Rui, NAN Gang-yang, WANG Qi-wu
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  50-54.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.009
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    To solve the problem of pipe thickness online nondestructive testing in the explosive surroundings of oil refinery area, a novel EMAT system with maximum lift-off value of 6 mm has been developed in the way of focusing magnetic field and optimizing the testing coil. Experiment results show that the testing accuracy was less than 0.05 mm for standard test block with thickness of 22 mm and the serviced pipeline with thickness of 12.16 mm when the condition of liftoff value was less than 6 mm. The developed EMAT system in this work can satisfy the requirement of pipeline thickness detection in the refining factory, which provides the ability of explosionproof design and certification for EMAT technology.

    Research progress on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in metal element detection
    DU Qing-chen,ZHANG Zhen-zhen, JU Yang
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  55-63.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.010
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    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is widely used to analyze the composition and the concentration of elements in materials,which is based on the atomic excitation and emission spectrum. It has many advantages, such as rapid, multielement simultaneous detection and without sample pretreatment. In this paper, research progress on the application of metal element detection in such fields as alloy, soil, water, and food is reviewed. It is considered that there are some problems in this technology at present, such as low detection accuracy, poor repeatability, unstable detection signal. It is also found that the research and development of LIBS based metal element detection instrument should be developed towards the direction of conventional, portable and high precision.

    Tranfic and Transportation
    An algorithm for point to point shortest paths based on preprocessing
    LU Wen-qi, GU Yuan-li, LI Meng, WANG Shuo, ZHANG Yuan
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  64-71.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.011
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    Based on the classical Dijkstra algorithm, an algorithm for point to point shortest paths based on preprocessing was studied. The bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm and the reachbased preprocessing method were introduced to establish the new RE algorithm in this paper. The program of the new algorithm was compiled with C++ and the new algorithm was applied to traffic engineering field. Traffic networks considering delay on roads and intersections were constructed by using EFSS data structure to test the applicability and efficiency of RE algorithm. The results reveal that compared with the original Dijkstra algorithm, the RE algorithm has a significant increase in the search speed and can ensure the correctness of path query. On largescale networks, the new RE algorithm shows great advantages and its query time is approximately 10% of the Dijkstra algorithm.

    Study on service satisfaction evaluation modeling of public bicycle in Ningbo
    CHEN Wen-xin,YUE Hao, HAN Hong-yan, SHI Xiang-yun
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  72-78.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.012
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    Taking Ningbo public bicycle as a case study, the factor analysis and binomial logistic method were combined to analyze the 1 688 inhabitants′ valid satisfaction questionnaires. Factor analysis was used to select six factors, and the binomial logistic method was used to remove and select five effective factors, thus the service satisfaction evaluation model of public bicycle was built to evaluate current service satisfaction of public bicycle in Ningbo. At the same time, the evaluation model was checked by random sampling of 5% questionnaires which was not participating in modeling, so as to ensure the accuracy and rationality of the model. The results of research are helpful to evaluate current Ningbo citizens′ service satisfaction of public bicycle, and is suitable for the prediction of the service satisfaction of public bicycle in the future.

    An optimized wavelet neural network based on improved artificial bee colony algorithm for short-term traffic flow prediction
    HUANG En-tan, GU Yuan-li
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  79-87.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.013
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    To improve the forecasting accuracy of short-term traffic flow of urban road, and to overcome the disadvantages of slow convergence and easy to fall into local optimum in the prediction process of wavelet neural network, an improved artificial bee colony algorithm, or ABC for short, was proposed to optimize the wavelet neural network prediction model. The adaptive mutation operation in differential evolution algorithm and the selection operator, crossover operator and mutation operator in genetic algorithm were introduced to optimize the traditional ABC, and to improve such disadvantages as slow convergence and weak local search ability in its later period. In this paper, the algorithm was used to optimize the parameters of the wavelet neural network and predict the shortterm traffic flow. The simulation results show that compared with the existing model, the improved ABC algorithm has less error, higher accuracy, fewer training times, and has higher practical application value.

    Environment and Ecology
    Research on the vulnerability of natural disasters in Shaanxi Province
    GAO Lei
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  88-93.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.014
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    Based on the data of natural disasters of Shaanxi Province from 2009 to 2015, this paper analyzed the spatial and temporal characteristics of natural disasters in this area and evaluated their vulnerability with the combination of mathematical statistical analysis. The results show that the affected population and the affected area of crops are the direct manifestation of the vulnerability of natural disasters. The direct economic loss caused by disasters is the indirect manifestation of the vulnerability of natural disasters. The vulnerability of natural disasters in Shaanxi Province has obvious spatial and temporal distribution differences. The areas with high vulnerability to natural disasters are mainly distributed in the eastern region, while Xi'an and Tongchuan city in the midland are low vulnerability areas. The research provides the decisionmaking basis for the department of disaster prevention and prediction.

    A method for screening and optimizing of evaluation factors based on Nemerow index method
    HAN Shu-xin, WANG Li-hong, WANG Zhen-hua, LUAN Ling-yu, ZHAO Chang-sheng
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  94-99.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.015
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    To obtain the key evaluation factors in the special evaluation and improve the regional applicability of evaluation standards for each single factor, a screening and optimizing method was proposed based on Nemerow index method. Based on the evaluation result tables established by the single factor index method and Nemerow index method, the ranking of evaluation factors was obtained by determining the quality category and calculating the nonzero results. Then, according to the ranking of factors, the consistency of the evaluation results of two methods could be improved by optimizing the single factor evaluation criteria. Taking the seawater intrusion assessment in Guangrao as an example, the application results showed that sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was the key evaluation factor for seawater intrusion assessment in Guangrao. After the evaluation criteria of single factors were optimized, the consistency ratio of the evaluation results by single factor index method and Nemerow index method was improved to different extent. Among them, the optimization effect of chloride was the most significant, and its ratio of consistency was increased by 21.7% compared with the previous one. This method could provide more targeted technical supports for the repair and improvement of specific targets as well as some tracking or periodic evaluations.

    Other Research Article
    Bi-semiring whose multiplicative semigroup(S,·)is an inverse semigroup
    YUAN Meng, LI Gang
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  100-104.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.016
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    A bi-semiring whose semigroup S,+ was a semilattice, semigroup  S,· was an inverse semigroup and semiroup S,* was a semilattice was studied in this paper. By using three partial orders constructed on S,+,S,· and S,* and the relationships among them, some equivalent statements for this kind of bisemiring to be a distributive lattice were given.

    Motor imagery EEG classification algorithm based on probabilistic collaboration representation
    CUI Li-xia, YANG Ji-min,CHANG Hong-li
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  105-112.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.017
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    In the research of brain-computer interface, a classification method for recognizing the features of motor imagery EEG signals based on probabilistic collaborative representation (ProCRC) was proposed in this paper. The maximum likelihood that a test sample belonged to each of the multiple classes was compared, so as to determine the final classification that it belonged to.Performance of this method was tested using the data set of BCI competition Ⅲ. Firstly, the S transform was used to extract the electroencephalography features, and then different classifiers were compared. Finally, the classification accuracy was used as the evaluation criterion to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. The accuracy of the algorithm proposed in this paper could reach 90%, which provided a new idea for the research of the classification algorithm of the braincomputer interface system.

    Mechanics model and experimental research on the frost heaving force of crack rock under freezing and thawing cycle
    WANG Yong-yan, ZHANG Jin-long, ZHU Si-wen
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  113-119.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.018
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    Taking the rocklike materials made of cement and mortar as the research object, combined with related theories such as mechanics of elasticity, fracture mechanics and fluid mechanics, the calculation theoretical model for the frost heaving force of porous rock under the effect of volume expansion was derived, and a positive correlation between the frost heaving force and the bulk modulus was obtained. Through the uniaxial compression experiments for fractured specimens after freezethaw cycle and the analysis of the influence of frost heaving force on the specimens with different fracture angles, it was found that the frost heaving force had the most obvious influence on specimen with 0° fracture, and the influence of frost heaving force on the peak strength of fractured specimens was gradually weakened with the increase of the fracture angle. The exact model was put forward for the solution of frost heaving force in rock fracture, and the feasibility of model for frost heaving force was verified by experiment, which provided a theoretical basis for future research on the frost heaving force value in fracture.

    Study on leakage forecast and leakage reduction of urban water supply pipeline network based on set pair analysis
    ZHAO Ming-xian, RAO Bi-yu, WANG Jing
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  120-126.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.019
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    In order to reduce the level of pipeline leakage and ensure the safety and reliability of urban water supply, this paper took a typical water supply area in a city of Yunnan as a research object. Using set pair analysis of leakage prediction model (SPALF), the actual situation of the leakage of different pipe materials was analyzed from two aspects of the leakage quantities and the leakage rate of the water supply network, and the leakage trend of different pipe materials in the future was predicted as well, which could improve the level of active leak detection in water supply enterprises and the reliability of water supply safety, and reduce the leakage rate of pipe network and the cost of water supply.

    Calculation and experimental research on stable dimension of rockfill
    XU Guo, JI Jun-na,QU Heng-liang, LIU Zhen
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2018, 31(2):  127-132.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2018.02.020
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    To ensure the safety and reliability of riprap protection project of submarine cable in Qiongzhou Straight, a formula for calculating the rockfill′s stable dimension was established in this paper. According to the dynamic factors of the engineering sea area, the stable dimension of the riprap block was calculated.The calculation results matched experimental results well.The rockfill′s stable dimension was confirmed by calculation analysis and experimental research, which could save cost and improve the safety and reliability of riprap protection project.