Table of Content

    20 June 2021 Volume 34 Issue 3
    Oceanographic Science, Technology and Equipment
    Wave inversion technology and offshore comparison data analysis based on the SVS-603 sensor
    WANG Zhi, ZHOU Yang, YANG Jun-xian, ZHENG Wei, ZHAO Bin, YU Yu, CAI Zhi-wen
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  1-8.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (10310KB) ( )  
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    The wave inversion technology plays an important role in sensor development. In this study, a SVS-603 sensor was installed in DWR-MKIII buoy, and wave parameters and wave spectra measured by the SVS-603 were compared with the data measured by DWR-MKIII. Based on the results, the wave inversion technology of the SVS-603 sensor was studied in detail, and the difference and reliability comparison between the wave spectra smoothened on time domain and frequency domain were made. Results showed that the wave spectra smoothened on time domain were more close to those of the DWR-MKIII, whereas, the wave spectra smoothened on frequency domain were employed, spectra on low frequencies were unfiltered, and wave peak periods were oscillated.This research can provide more accurate wave algorithms for the development of acceleration principle wave equipment.
    Design of a mechanical current meter measurement and control module based on a CAN bus
    LIU Qing-peng, FU Ming-yang, YU Yu, HUI Li, LU Cheng-jie
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  9-18.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (9814KB) ( )  
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    In view of the present mechanical current meter big power consumption, lower attitude measuring precision, large volume, complex maintenance, velocity of flow measurement data of the single, we design a controller based on local area network (controller area network,CAN) bus STM32F103RCT6 as the control core of current meter measurement and control module, low power machinery and gives the overall structure, hardware interface circuit of measurement and control module system, communication protocol, software design and main technical index. The results of marine experiments show that this module not only realizes the signal acquisition and control of current velocity and flow direction, but also realizes the measurement of different current velocity and flow direction through the expansibility of CAN bus, which increases the range of marine hydrological survey and improves its flexibility.

    Traditional Chinese medicine and natural active products
    Pharmacognostical and molecular pharmacognostical identification of Periplaneta americana L. 
    SU Yang, XU Ling-chuan
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  19-25.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.003
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    The traditional Chinese medicine identification characteristics of Periplaneta americana L. were summarized via pharmacognosy and molecular pharmacognosy. The purpose of this study is to ensure the safety of P.americana when used as a traditional Chinese medicine component. First, the morphological and microscopic characteristics of P. americana were observed and recorded using a high-performance stereomicroscope and a biological digital microscope. Then, the molecular identification method was used to perform PCR amplification and sequencing on the DNA of P. americana. To verify the accuracy of pharmacognosy identification, the obtained sequencing results were compared with the data in the DNA bar code identification system of traditional Chinese medicine and the detection results were compared with the morphological identification results. The body wall fragments of P. americana are attached to a scaly texture, and the inner and outer layers of the body wall are distinct. The bristles of P. americana are segmented into coarse and fine types, and their color differences are obvious. The compound eye fragments of P. americana have obvious characteristics. The result of molecular pharmacognosy was P. americana (Insecta: Blattodea: Blattidae). The homology was 100%. Through this experiment, we can confirm the identification characteristics of P. americana as a Chinese medicinal material and provide experimental basis for its safe use.

    Rapid determination of glutamic acid content in Eupolyphaga Steleophaga using an amino acid analyzer

    ZHANG Hua-li, ZHOU Hong-liang, SUN Jia-chang
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  26-32.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.004
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    The effects of various concentrations of hydrochloric acid, material-to-liquid ratios, and extraction times on the extraction of glutamate in Eupolyphaga Steleophaga were compared using an amino acid analyzer to establish a method to measure the glutamate content in Eupolyphaga Steleophaga. The results showed that the best extraction process for glutamic acid in Eupolyphaga Steleophaga was a material-to-liquid ratio of 1:1 (mg/mL), 6 mol/L hydrochloric acid, and hydrolysis time of 22 h. The recovery rate of the glutamic acid analyzer method was 99.2%, and the relative standard deviation of the precision test was 0.19%. There were significant differences in the glutamate content in Eupolyphaga Steleophaga from different regions, ranging from 1.068% to 1.149%. The method is reproducible, fast, efficient, and easy to perform. It is suitable for the detection of amino acid content in Eupolyphaga Steleophaga and can provide technical support for its quality control and in-depth resource development.

    Cardamine Leucantha, a new record from Shandong Province, China
    ZHAO Feng-xi, REN Zhao-jie
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  33-35.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.005
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    The species Cardamine leucantha(Tausch) O. E. Schulz is reported as a new record from the Shandong Province of China in a plant resources survey at Jiuru Hillit belongs to the genus Cardamine of the family Brassicaceae. Based on field investigations and specimen studies, we updated its morphological characters and discussed the distribution of C. leucantha and the significance of its new distribution. Meanwhile, a key to the classification of Cardamine in Shandong province is provided.

    Agricultural Microbiology
    Effects of Trichoderma harzianum T11-W and apple branch sawdust on cucumber seedling growth 
    WANG Yi-lian, ZHAO Zhong-juan, YANG Kai, LU Chang-hou, YU Yi, XU Wei-sheng, LI Ji-shun
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  36-41.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.006
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    To explore rapid utilization methodsfor pruning apple branches, cucumber (Jinyan No. 4) was used as a test material to study the effects of Trichoderma harzianum T11-W and apple branch sawdust on its seedling growth. T. harzianum T11-W was added to the sawdust in advance in one group (this was considered treated sawdust), whereas the other group involved the simultaneous addition of T. harzianum T11-W to sawdust. These two groups were compared with untreated apple branches (raw sawdust) and T. harzianum T11-W alone. Results showed that T. harzianum T11-W exhibited the most significant growth-promoting effect on cucumber seedlings, and when the mass fraction of sawdust was 0.7%, the root length inhibition of sawdust was weakened and the dry weight of its root was further increased by adding T. harzianum T11-W. Although the comprehensive evaluation of Trichoderma with sawdust treatment (treated sawdust or raw sawdust) was not as good as that of T. harzianum T11-W treatment alone, they have the highest root-cap ratio. When the raw sawdust dosage was 0.35%, the promotion of cucumber seedling growth was weaker than that of the control group that did not undergo any treatment. When the dose was 0.7%, the growth-promoting effect was higher than that of the above-mentioned control group, indicating that increasing the amount of raw sawdust facilitated cucumber seedling growth. When the sawdust dosage was 0.35%, the growth-promoting effect of treated sawdust on cucumber seedlings was better than that of raw sawdust. 
    New Materials
    Bearing life prediction based on real-time monitoring
    HOU Nan, LIU Long, JIANG Ting, TIAN Li-nan, DING Ning
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  42-48.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.007
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    In this study, the original vibration signals of an Svenska Kullager-Fabriken (SKF) bearing's inner race, rolling element, and outer race with three fault sizes were extracted from Case Western Reserve University Bearing Data Center. The fault sizes were 0.007, 0.014, and 0.021 in(1 in=2.54 cm). By empirical mode decomposition (EMD), 17 intrinsic mode functions were found. Principal component analysis (PCA) was then conducted, and it was found that the relationship between the fault sizes of the inner and outer races and the first and second principal components could be accurately fitted by principal component fitting formulas. Therefore, the fault sizes can be obtained by real-time monitoring of vibration signals and signal analysis. Finally, the residual life of the bearing with a fault was predicted using the Paris-Erdogan formula and finite element simulation. This study has a significant meaning for prevention of equipment accidents caused by bearing cracks.
    Energy and Power
    Analysis of factors affecting the remaining service life of power lithium battery
    SUN Xi-quan, HOU En-guang
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  49-53.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.008
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    To effectively evaluate the remaining service life of a power lithium battery system, key factors affecting its remaining service life must be accurately obtained. In this paper, the current of the battery during charging and discharging, temperature, and real-time voltage were determined as the key factors. The influence of each factor on the remaining service life of the power lithium battery was analyzed using the principal component analysis method to perform a quantitative analysis. The values of each factor were collected during the processes of repeated charging and discharging cycle. Through the verification and comparison of the remaining service life prediction, it was observed that the cumulative contribution rate of the first five factors accountted for 99% (the error range was within 3%) and the cumulative contribution rate of the first four factors accountted for 90% (the error range was within 4%).
    Tranfic and Transportation
    Design of subway parking lines with two train spaces
    PENG Lei, SUN Yuan-guang, JIN Hua
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  54-61.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.009
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    Subway parking lines with one train space are widely used in urban rail transit systems. However, in the process of train failure rescue , this method can accommodate only one train owing to their length limitations and will cause extra delay. Conversely, subway parking lines with two train spaces work better in train failure rescue, although higher requirements are imposed on engineering conditions and costs. This study designs eight different types of parking lines with two train spaces based on forms and setting principles of traditional parking lines with one train space, and performs a comparison analysis. Moreover, a railway simulation tool OpenTrack is used to simulate the suitability of parking lines with two train spaces during train failure rescue. Results show that each of the eight types of parking lines has its own applicative situation, and tandem parking lines exhibit better applicability among them. Furthermore, the parking lines with two train spaces can considerably reduce rescue delay time when they are set in the middle of the line away from the car depot. In the situation wherein only train failure rescue is considered, the tandem end-type parking lines are the best choice.
    Analysis of the deformation characteristics of a deep foundation pit excavation at a Xi′an subway station
    SUN Jian-chao, MAO Hong-mei, GAO Pan-ke, ZHANG Hua-bing, LIU Da-peng
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  62-70.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.010
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    To ensure the safety of the surrounding environment in the excavation of foundation pits, taking the excavation of a deep foundation pit at a Xi'an subway station as an example, ABAQUS was used to establish a three-dimensional model to simulate the impact of excavation on the surrounding surface settlement and the deformation of the retaining structure. This study focused on the distribution of the surrounding surface settlement and the deformation of the retaining structure and compared the simulation results with actual monitoring data to guide site surface settlement monitoring. Analysis results show that the measured value is larger than the simulated value, but the change trend is the same. In the process of foundation pit excavation, the maximum ground settlement occurs at 11 m from the edge of the foundation pit, the maximum value being 3.29 mm; the horizontal deformation curve of the retaining structure along the excavation depth is a parabola, the maximum horizontal displacement occurs at 1/2 of the maximum excavation depth of the foundation pit, and the value is 11.05 mm. The ground settlement within 0~25 m from the long edge and 0~22 m from the short edge of the foundation pit is the largest, which should be focused on in construction monitoring.

    Environment and Ecology
    Determination of five phenolic compounds in environmental water using solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    LIU You-bin, LI Yu-yang, LI Yan
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  71-79.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.011
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    In this study, the presence of five phenolic compounds-bisphenol F, bisphenol S, bisphenol A, octyl phenol, and nonyl phenol-in environmental water was determined using solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were enriched using the hydrophile-lipophile balance column and then eluted using dichloromethane/acetonitrile. The samples were separated using C18 chromatographic column with methanol-water as mobile phase and then detected via HPLC-MS/MS under the multiple-reactions-monitoring mode with the negative-ion mode and quantified using an external standard method. Under optimal conditions, the method exhibits a wide linear response to the five phenolic compounds, ranging 1~500 ng/mL, with a low detection limit of 0.05~0.15 ng/L. The correlation coefficients were between 0.998 7 and 0.999 7. Satisfactory precision (relative standard deviation: 2.54%~7.88%, n=5) and excellent recoveries of 89.40%~104.2% for analytes determination in spiked water samples were observed. The method was successfully applied to four types of environmental water, results show that the proposed method can simultaneously determinate five phenolic compounds in environmental water with high accuracy and sensitivity.
    Effect of silver nanoparticles on soil enzyme activity and functional diversity of microbial communities in wheat-straw-returned soil
    CAO Xin-lei, JIANG Hao, YANG Bao-shan, JIAO Ke-qin, WANG Hui
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  80-89.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.012
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    An indoor cultivation system was used to study the environmental impact of nano silver on various soil characteristics, such as soil respiration, carbon-conversion-related enzyme activities, and functional diversity of microbial community. The experimental sample was set as blank control boil (untreated,CK), wheat-straw-returned soil(SW), nano silver amended soil (AgSW). The results showed that when compared with blank control soil, wheat-straw-returned soil had increased the soil respiration rate, cumulative release of CO2 was increased by 9.9%. Further, nano-silver amendment inhibited soil respiration in comparison with wheat straw treatment, and cumulative release of CO2 was reduced by 36.8%, the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and cellulase were considerably reduced highest by 25.1%, 27.1%, and 14.3%, respectively. The results of microbial community level physiological characteristics revealed that nano silver significantly reduced the average well color development(AWCD (reduced by 73.8% compared with SW) as well as microbial diversity and richness. The results show that nano silver alters the ecological process of soil organic matter decomposition by inhibiting soil microbial activity and reduces the functional diversity of microbial communities.
    Analysis of air pollution meteorological conditions in Jinan in January 2014
    SUN Feng-juan, LU Bo, ZHANG Wen-juan, LI Min, WANG Gui-xia, FU Hua-xuan
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  90-99.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.013
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    To study the influence of atmospheric circulation background and meteorological conditions on PM2.5 pollution in Midwest of Shandong Province, this paper uses meteorological and PM2.5 concentration data and selects Jinan as a typical representative city to diagnose and analyze the effect of atmospheric circulation background and meteorological evolution process on PM2.5 concentration in Jinan for the month of January 2014. The stable weather index formula of Jinan is established. Analysis shows that from the north of East China to the south of North China in January 2014, wind speed from the ground to the middle troposphere was a negative anomaly; thus, the ability of horizontal diffusion was very weak. Water vapor transportation enhanced by abnormal southerly winds helps gaseous pollutant to transform into aerosol and results in higher PM2.5 concentration. The East Asian winter monsoon is considerably weaker, with increased inversion temperature and poor vertical pollution diffusion ability. An abnormally high pressure of 500 hPa has inhibited the development of the East Asian trough and is more conducive to the accumulation of pollutants in the lower troposphere. Analysis of the weather evolution process shows that the meteorological conditions in both the horizontal direction at the ground and the vertical direction at high altitude can affect PM2.5 concentration. Results indicate that light wind, high humidity, and surface wind convergence can increase PM2.5 concentration; moreover, low depth of the planetary boundary layer, vertical airflow sinking, and increasing instability of atmospheric stratification in the middle and lower atmosphere can increase PM2.5 concentration and vice versa. A stable index can better predict air quality and heavy pollution process.

    Other Research Article
    Construction of fourth-order kernel matrix of polar code
    MA Kui-ming, LI Xiu-li
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  100-108.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.014
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    Polar code is the only linear error-correcting channel code that has been proved theoretically to reach the Shannon Limit. Herein, on the basis of the existing studies on the second and third-order kernel matrices of polar codes, the construction criteria of an optimal fourth-order kernel matrix are proposed: the main diagonals are 1, the number of “1” in the last line is 4, and all the matrices conforming to the abovementioned criteria are determined. Unlike the second-order kernel matrix, which only exhibits a single linear form, the fourth-order kernel matrix can take several forms, providing the polarization codes with more options in the construction. Then, taking the kernel matrix as an example, the channel polarization principle is introduced in detail. Finally, the steps for constructing a polar code having a specific block length with a given kernel matrix of any dimension are summarized.
    Path planning of robot based on improved BI-RRT algorithm
    HAN Feng-jian, QIU Shu-bo, LI Qing-hua, LIU Hai-ying
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  109-118.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.015
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    Aiming at the problems of BI-RRT algorithm in path planning, such as poor target orientation, slow convergence speed, and numerous inflection points, an improved BI-RRT algorithm is proposed in this paper. The random tree is guided to grow faster toward the target point through target orientation to accelerate the convergence speed. In addition, the introduction of greedy path optimization strategy effectively reduces the path inflection points and improves the efficiency of path planning algorithm. Furthermore, a disk collision detection algorithm is also proposed. Path planning simulation experiments on a disk mobile robot is performed in several scenarios using Matlab. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm are verified via experimental results.
    Trajectory tracking control of SCARA robot via backstepping approach
    ZHAO Na, LU Cheng-xing
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  119-124.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.016
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    In this paper, we propose a trajectory tracking control law based on backstepping approach for the SCARA robot. We design the virtual and actual control terms by employing the backstepping approach. Based on Lyapunov's stability theory, the designed control law can track the trajectory of the robot and ensure that the closed-loop system is globally stable. Simulation results verified the effectiveness of the designed algorithm. The closed-loop system is uniformly globally asymptotically stable,which effectively improves the accuracy performance of trajectory tracking and ensures the convergence of the tracking error signal.
    Design of a control system packaging line for automobile brake discs
    ZHANG Dong, GUAN Zhi-guang, ZHANG Guang-yuan
    Shandong Science. 2021, 34(3):  125-130.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2021.03.017
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    Currently,a large number of human errors exist in the packaging line for automobile brake discs, which restricts the efficiency of a automobile brake disc packaging system. This study developed an integrated, efficient and intelligent system. Siemens PLC was used as the lower computer of the system, WinCC configuration software was used for the upper computer, and web publishing was implemented through WinCC Web Navigator. This system has a user-friendly human-machine interface and comprehensive functions, which can meet the requirements of brake disc automatic packaging, improve work efficiency and packaging quality, and save labor costs.