Table of Content

    20 October 2017 Volume 30 Issue 5
    Oceanographic Science, Technology and Equipment
    MCGS based software design for the real-time monitoring system of marine ecological environment
    WANG Xiao-hong, MA Ran, CAO Xuan, ZHANG Shu-wei, WU Ning, CAO Lu, ZHANG Li, ZHANG Tian-peng
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  1-7.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2328KB) ( )  
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    In this study, a MCGS based software for the real-time monitoring system of the marine ecological environment was developed, and the sensors such as nutrient, multiparameter, and total organic carbon (TOC) were used together to realize the real-time and automatic monitoring of marine ecological parameters such as integrated water quality parameters,seawater nutrients and organic matters. Through the DTU data transmission terminal, the monitoring data were transmitted to the user data center in real-time. This proposed software was designed based on the imbedded module and featured with stable and flexible data structure, strong portability and extensibility, friendly interface, simple operation, and convenient maintenance. The in-field demonstration results showed that the software worked stably with the reliable data communication, and it could be applied to real-time monitoring of the marine ecological environment.

    Design of online automatic filtration system for the in-situ nutrient salt sensor
    CHU Dong-zhi,ZHANG Shu-wei, ZHANG Tian-peng,WANG Xiao-hong, CAO Xuan,MA Ran
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  8-13.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.002
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    The analysis sensor for small flow nutrient salt has the problem of fouling and clogging of filter parts during operation. To solve this problem, a counterflushing type of online filtering system for nutrient salt was designed. The microporous ceramic filter core was used as the filter element, and an online filtration system with secondary injection, secondary filtration, and periodic recoil was proposed, which was based on the existing filtering methods. In addition, working principle and process were described in this article, and the filtering parameters were determined. The experiment results showed that effluent turbidity of the filtering system was stable, basically between 0.2 ~ 0.3 NTU, the system was effective below 150 NTU.After filtration, the recovery rates of 5 nutrients were basically between 90% and 110%, which indicated that this online filtration system could be used for insitu nutrient salt sensor.

    Traditional Chinese medicine and natural active products
    Determination of 35 elements in Chinese caterpillar fungus from Qinghai and Tibet by microwave digestionICP-MS
    ZHANG Min-min,ZHAO Heng-qiang,ZHAO Zhi-guo,LIU Wei,LIU Qian,LIANG Yan,GENG Yan-ling,HUANG Lu-qi,WANG Xiao
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  14-20.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (948KB) ( )  
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    To determine the contents of 35 elements (including 16 rare earth elements) in 17 batches of Chinese caterpillar fungus from Qinghai and Tibet and make preliminary identification analysis of their habitats, a total of 35 elements in Chinese caterpillar fungus samples were determined by microwave digestionICPMS, including 3 batches from Yushu, 4 batches from Naqu and 10 batches from Guoluo. Furthermore, cluster analysis was carried out on the measurement results of 3 producing areas. Results showed that the contents of 35 elements in 17 kinds of Chinese caterpillar fungus samples from different origins have obvious differences. And the limits of the 4 kinds of harmful elements (Cd, Pb, As and Cu) were recommended. The results of cluster analysis showed that the samples from Yushu and Guoluo were close, and the difference was small, while the sample from Naqu was far away, and its relative difference was larger. This method is quick, accurate and feasible, which provides a theoretical basis for quality control and medication guidance of Chinese caterpillar fungus from different habitats.

    Optimization of alcohol extraction techniques of total flavonoids from Bidens bipinnata L. stems using response surface methodology
    LI Yuan-yuan,JIANG Yan-ling, ZHOU Hong-lei,ZHANG Ling, CAI Mei-chao, SUN Xiao-lin, CHU Xin-hong
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  21-27.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.004
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    In this paper, the flavonoids extraction rate was taken as the index, the effects of ethanol concentration, dosage, extraction times and extraction time on the extraction results were investigated, and through BoxBehnken design, the response surface model was established to optimize the parameters of the technology for extracting total flavonoids from Bidens bipinnata L. stems. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of total flavonoids from Bidens bipinnata L. stems. were as follows: the ethanol volume fraction was 70%, liquidsolid ratio was12∶1(mL/g), extracted 3 times, and the extraction time was 1.5 h. In these conditions, the maximum extraction rate of total flavonoids could reach 0.95%, and the relative error was 3.06% when compared with the theoretical value of 0.98%.

    Content determination of paeoniflorin in tonic semifluid extract of ten ingredients
    LIU Qing, LIU Bo,DING Xiao-yan
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  28-31.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.005
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    A HPLC method for the determination of paeoniflorin in tonic semifluid extract of ten ingredients was established. The HPLC analysis was performed on Kromasil C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), acetonitrilewater (17∶83, V/V) as the mobile phase, and the column temperature was 30 ℃, injection volume was 10 μL, the detective wavelength was at 230 nm, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Results revealed that paeoniflorin at the content of 0.083 6~0.627 0 μg showed good linearity(r= 0.999 8),the recovery rate was 98.98%~100.47%, RSD was 0.65% (n=6). This method is highly specific, sensitive, reproducible, and simple, which can be used for the quality control of this preparation.

    Study on in vitro transdermal drug release of Dingjiang Hewei plaster
    ZHANG Wei,CAO Jia,WANG Hui,CAO Yun-fei,WANG Wei
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  32-36.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.006
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    The in vitro transdermal diffusion cell method was applied, the abdominal skin of rats in vitro was taken as the barrier, and the content determination of eugenol in transdermal solution of Dingjiang Hewei plaster and the cumulative release amount of transdermal drug per unit area in different time periods were researched. Experimental results showed the chromatographic conditions were as followed: Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (150 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm), methanol-water(65∶35, V/V) as mobile phase, detection wavelength was 280 nm, the RSD of the repeatability of eugenol content was 0.932%, the RSD of sample solution stability within 24 h was 1.843%, the average recovery was 97.4192%,and its RSD was 1.426%. Eugenol transdermal drug release showed a trend of first fast, then slow. The total cumulative drug release within the first 10 h accounted for 76.71% of the total cumulative drug release within 20 h, while the accumulative release total amount within 10~20 h was only 23.29%.

    New Materials
    Effects of B and Gd composite microalloying on microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy
    LIU Na,MENG Xiao-tang,ZHAO De-gang
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  37-44.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.007
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    The microstructure, phase composition of AZ91 magnesium alloy with trace amount of B and rare earth element Gd were investigated by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy spectrum analysis (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The effects of (B+Gd) microalloying on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 magnesium alloys were studied at room temperature. The results showed that the rod or block Al2Gd phase was formed after adding the rare earth Gd into AZ91 magnesium alloy. When the content of Gd was 1.0%, the tensile strength of ascast alloy was 207.8 Mpa which increased by 27.9% than that without Gd. After adding the combined (B+Gd) into AZ91 magnesium alloy, the microstructure of alloy changed obviously. Based on reducing the content of Gd, the addition of trace amounts of B could achieve the strengthening effect of trace B instead of some Gd on AZ91. Compared with the ascast AZ91 magnesium alloy with single addition of Gd, in the case of the same mechanical properties, the addition of Gd in the combined (B+Gd) microalloying ascast AZ91 magnesium alloy could save by 19%, which decreased the productive cost of alloys.

    Numerical simulation study on dynamic recrystallization of AZ31 magnesium alloy during seamless tube extrusion
    ZHUANG Hai-hua,YANG Zhu,LIU Yun-teng,ZHOU Ji-xue, MA Bai-chang, WANG Jin-wei
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  45-49.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.008
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    Based on the stressstrain curves obtained by hot compression tests at temperature of 300 ~ 450 ℃ and at strain rate of 0.01 ~ 1 s-1, the empirical dynamic recrystallization models for the semicontinuous AZ31 magnesium alloy were developed. The model was applied to the numerical simulation of dynamic recrystallization evolution during seamless tube extrusion of AZ31 magnesium alloy, and was verified by metallographic observation. The results showed that, at certain extrusion speed, the influence of the extruding temperature on the dynamic recrystallization fraction was the most significant. With the increase of the extruding temperature, the volume fraction of dynamic recrystallization increased obviously. The predicted volume fraction of dynamic recrystallization was in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

    Optical Fiber and Photonic sensingtechnology
    Temperature compensation of fiber Bragg grating strain sensor based on differential structure
    LI Zhen, WANG Ji-qiang, ZHAO Lin, LIU Tong-yu
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  50-54.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.009
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    For the differential structure based optical fiber strain sensor, temperature and stress affect two gratings, and there is temperature and strain cross interference. The traditional temperature compensation algorithm does not consider the influence of the thermal expansion of the package structure on the center wavelength of the grating. There are some shortcomings in the theory of the algorithm, which are likely to cause measurement errors in the practical application of the project. In this paper, the sensitivity of the whole structure after encapsulation was analyzed, and the temperature sensitivity coefficient of the gratings was obtained by the experiment. The theoretical deduction was simplified and the strain measurement was carried out. The results show that after temperature compensation, the center wavelength difference between the two gratings is linearly related to the pressure. The linear correlation coefficient is 0.7 pm/Pa with a fit of 0.999 5, which can effectively suppress the effect of temperature on the wavelength.

    Study on distributed fiber seismic wave detection system and its layout optimization
    DU Qing-chen, WANG Chen, SHANG Ying, LIU Xiao-hui,ZHAO Qing-chao, CAO Bing,ZHAO Wen-an, NI Jia-sheng, WANG Chang
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  55-61.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.010
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    In this paper, a new type of distributed fiber seismic wave detection system for oil and gas exploration was designed. And based on buried layout mode, the advanced practical layout optimization scheme of adding caudal vertebrae to optical cable was put forward. Field test results showed that the system could completely detect the distribution of seismic waves along the cable and the waveform characteristics were similar to those of traditional electronic dynamic sensors. The buried layout mode has the maximum detection distance of up to 20 m and the maximum distance of the caudal vertebral layout mode can reach 10 m. The research provides necessary theoretical and technical support for the extensive application and transformation of the new system.

    Tranfic and Transportation
    Study on traffic state identification of urban expressway based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation
    CHEN Lun, GU Yuan-li,LU Wen-qi
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  62-69.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.011
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    In this paper, the speed and occupancy were chosen as the evaluation indicators, and based on entropy method and gray correlation analysis, a fuzzy judgement model of expressway traffic state was established. Note that weight used in fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was obtained by combination of entropy method and gray correlation analysis, and then quantification results of traffic state could be acquired by calculation. According to case study, methodology mentioned in this paper is practicable and effective, and it is of better stability when compared with the method based on either speed or occupancy, so that it can provide a theoretical basis for the traffic state identification of urban expressway.

    Study on the robustness of Chinese railway and airline multilayer networks based on complex network theory
    MA Xia-xia, CAI Yong-ming
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  70-78.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.012
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    To improve the efficiency and stability of our traffic system operation, this paper applied the complex network theory, selected railway and airline data (as of July 2015) of the prefecturelevel cities in China (not including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) as the research object, and constructed the Chinese railway and airline multilayer networks. The topological characteristics and robustness of Chinese railway and airline multilayer networks were studied, and two indexes, such as average path length and network efficiency, were chosen as robustness evaluation indexes. The results include the following points: the railway and airline multilayer and its singlelayer networks all have smallworld and scalefree characteristics; the robustness of Chinese railway and airline multilayer networks is better under the random attack than under the calculated attack; the robustness of railway and airline multilayer networks is better than its two subnetworks, whether under the calculated attack or under the random attack.

    The influence of traffic states on the taxi running areas
    XIE Yao-xuan,LU Shou-feng,JIANG Yong-dong,TAO Li-ming
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  79-85.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.013
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    In view of the difficulty of finding a taxi during peak hours in large and medium cities, a quantitive method was proposed to study taxis escape from urban congestion areas by using the GPS data of taxis. Firstly, ray method was used for map matching, the road network of central urban was divided into a plurality of research areas, and the taxi GPS data were used to calculate the cumulative vehicle frequency per 5 minutes in each region; Secondly, the cumulative vehicle frequency ratio between different regions was used to describe the flow of the taxis among different regions. The results show that taxis really have the phenomenon of escaping from traffic jams during peak periods, and it is found that the time of taxis fleeing congested areas lags behind 0.5~1.0 h relative to the peak period of social vehicles. The research results have certain reference value for mastering the characteristics of taxi operation and taxi management.

    Other Research Article
    An efficient estimation of the inverse Rayleigh distribution
    LU Jian-ping,SHI Jie-ru, HAO Bo
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  86-90.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.014
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    The MLE and UMVUE of the density function and distribution function were derived for the inverse Rayleigh distribution, and the explicit expressions of the rth moment of these estimators were given. The mean square error and variation coefficient of the estimators were asymptotically expanded. Finally, the judgement for the effective estimation of the inverse Rayleigh distribution was given in the large sample.

    The discussion of solutions for two classes of second order non-homogeneous equations with variable coefficients
    HOU Zhi-wu, ZHANG Lu, ZHU Xue-liang
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  91-94.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.015
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    The solutions to some kinds of secondorder non-homogeneous linear differential equations with variable coefficients were discussed by using constant coefficient method and invariant method. The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods were analyzed and compared, and the feasibility of the two methods was illustrated by a concrete example.

    Graphidaceae, a new lichen family record to Shandong Province
    WANG Qi-dong, WU Xiao-han, JIA Ze-feng
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  95-98.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.016
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    The lichen species Diploschistes actinostomus (Graphidaceae, Ostropales) collected from Mt. Tai was reported as a new record to Shandong Province. It was characterized by saxicolous habit, crustose thallus, subimmersed perithicoid apothecia, 8spored ascus; and brownish muriform ascospores (20~30 μm × 12.5~15 μm in size). This species with its genus Diploschistes and family Graphidaceae is the first report from Shandong Province, which fills the blank of the records of Shandong lichens and is also important for flora study of Graphidaceae .

    Echinops coriophyllus, a newly recorded species of the genus Echinops (Compositae) from Shandong
    HOU Yuan-tong, WANG Li-hua, CAO Ling-jie, HOU Yuan-mian, WANG Kang-man
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  99-103.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.017
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    Echinops coriophyllus Shih,a newly recorded species of the genus Echinops, belonging to the family Compositae, from Shandong was reported in the present paper. Its external morphology, capitula, base hairs, phyllaries, achene and pappus were dissected and observed, and its pollen morphology, micromorphology of the leaf epidermis and pericarp were experimentally studied as well. The species is obviously different from Echinops grijsii in the morphological characteristics studied above.

    Study on the growth differences of Pinus densiflora forest under different densities in Laoshan Forest Farm
    WANG Shu-mei, ZHANG Guang-dong, WANG Xuan, JIANG Qian-kun, CAO Zhen-yu, CAO Bang-hua
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  104-110.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.018
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    This paper studied the growth variability of Pinus densiflora plantations with different densities in Laoshan Forest Farm, as well as the correlation between DBH and crown width. The results showed that under different densities, the diameter distribution of P. densiflora plantations increased first and then decreased. With the increase of stand density, DBH growth decreased significantly and the diameter class ratio decreased. The average tree height, clear length, and crown diameter of P. densiflora plantation were all on the rise. There was no significant difference in tree height growth between P. densiflora with different densities, and the clear length was significantly different, and the difference in DBH was very significant. The crown diameter of P. densiflora plantation was decreased with the increasing of stand density, but the crown ellipsoid volume was the opposite. Through analysis, the quadratic polynomial equation was obtained as the optimal model between DBH and crown width of P. densiflora plantation, and the relationship equation was obtained, which provided the basis for forestry production.

    Design of parking management system for the laneway-stow-typed stereo garage and its host computer
    ZHENG Jiang-hua, WANG Ya-li, MA Hai-yan, ZHANG Yan-fang, WU Hao
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  111-116.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.019
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    Using the key technologies such as OPC, network communication, database, and software programming, the parking management system for lanewaystowtyped stereo garage was designed and developed, which was used to assist the PLC core control unit, realizing the functions of monitoring, management, and access vehicles for the stereoscopic garage. At the same time, to shorten the time of the storing and retrieving cars in the stereo garage, the corresponding prioritization scheme about the parking was put forward. The design has further improved the automation and intelligence of the stereo garage, and effectively alleviated the “parking difficult” problem in the city.

    Design and implementation of intelligent health care service system for elderly based on cloud platform
    XU Ji-yong, SHU Ming-lei, ZHOU Shu-wang, LIU Bin, GAO Tian-lei
    SHANDONG SCIENCE. 2017, 30(5):  117-122.  doi:10.3976/j.issn.1002-4026.2017.05.020
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    To meet the needs of the intelligent health care service for the aged, a cloud platform based intelligent health care service system was designed and implemented using the Internet, internet of things, cloud computing and other technologies. Intelligent terminals intended for use in home environment, such as “all-in-one” health machine and smart mattress were designed and developed to collect the physiological data and monitor vital signs. And it also includes website and mobile client software of intelligent health service for the aged. The system established a dynamic monitoring mechanism for the elderly’s health, which makes information shared together, provides healthy instruction, chronic diseases management, diagnosis through remove video, safety custody and other services for the elderly, which promotes intelligent level of aged health care service, and improves the efficiency and quality of oldage health service.